China launched 19 and 20 satellites respectively in 2012 and 2013 mostly for its own and has thus become the country that launches the greatest number of satellites each year.
According to Jane’s Defence Weekly, only a small number of China’s new satellites are for non-military space programs. However, as pointed out in my new book Space Era Strategy: The Way China Beats The U.S., China’s space program is controlled by and serves Chinese military.
The following is the full text of Jane’s Defence Weekly’s recent article on Chinese satellites:
China launches latest of military, ‘experimental’ satellites
Andrew Tate, London – IHS Jane’s Defence Weekly
28 September 2014
China launched a Long March-4B rocket carrying the Yaogan-21 remote sensing satellite and an experimental satellite, Tiantuo-2, from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Centre on 8 September.
Tiantuo-2, which was designed and built by the National University of Defence Technology (NUDT), “will be used for scientific experiments, natural resource survey, estimation of crop yields, and disaster relief,” according to Xinhua news agency.
This is the function China ascribes to most of its remote sensing satellites, but analysts believe that the Yaogan constellation is used for ocean surveillance.
The launch was the latest in a series by China. On 9 August a Long March-4C rocket launched the Yaogan-20 mission into orbit from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre. While Xinhua reported the payload to be a satellite with the same purposes as the Yaogan-21, other sources indicate that the payload comprised three satellites, which were deployed in such a way that would make them suitable for operating as an ocean surveillance system.
Analysts believe that a range of sensors, encompassing electro-optical imaging, electronic intelligence (ELINT) intercept, and synthetic aperture radars, are carried by Yaogan series satellites. The first of the series, Yaogan-1, was launched on 27 April 2006 and is believed to have deployed China’s first space-based synthetic aperture radar. Yaogan-9, launched on 5 March 2010, was the first deployment of a triple satellite formation, followed by similar deployments from Yaogan-16 in November 2011 and Yaogan-17 in September 2013. The Yaogan-20 triplet, which is possibly a replacement for Yaogan-9, is believed to be for ELINT, detecting ships’ radar emissions, and determining emitter location through triangulation.
Internet sources, citing Xinhua, report that the experimental Tiantuo-2 carries four video cameras capable of streaming real-time data on moving objects. It is speculated that the system will be capable of tracking objects on the earth’s surface using real-time ground-controlled directional alignment of the cameras. An NUDT statement reported that the satellite will be used to test technologies for more advanced video imaging satellites.
The first Chinese satellite launch of 2014 was on 31 March and was of Shijian 11-06 (SJ-11-06). Chinese media reported this as an experimental satellite and provided no further details. However, the positioning of the Shijian 11 constellation, and similarities to the launch vehicle and orbit of Shiyan Weixing 2 (SY-2), launched on 18 November 2004, which tested IR sensors, has led some analysts to believe that the purpose is to support a ballistic missile early warning system, with satellites equipped with infrared sensors to detect missile launches. SJ-11-06 is the fifth satellite in the constellation; SJ-11-04 was lost in August 2011 after failure of the second stage of the launch vehicle.
Two other launches carrying three satellites for non-military space programmes have recently taken place; from Taiyuan on 19 August and from Jiuquan on 4 September. China has a third operational satellite launch centre at Xichang in Sichuan province and a fourth is being constructed at Wenquan on Hainan Island. Chinese media have reported that the Wenquan launch centre “is almost completed and can already launch space vehicles”.
It is anticipated that Wenquan will be used extensively for launches associated with the manned space programme and the Tiangong-2 space station, as it will be able to launch the larger, 5 m-diameter Long March 5 series rockets with heavier payloads. The first launch could take place later in 2014.
Source: Jane’s defence weekly “China launches latest of military, ‘experimental’ satellites”
Related posts at tiananmenstremendousachievements.wordpress.com:
- China’s Kuaizhou System Able to Replace Destroyed Satellite within Hours dated September 17, 2014
- China’s New Gaofen-2 Satellite Able to See a Car from the Height of 600,000 meter dated August 20, 2014
In Chapter 8 of the expanded 2nd edition of my book Tiananmen’s Tremendous Achievements, I give quite detailed analysis of the current Chinese political system of CCP (Chinese Communist Party) Dynasty with a core like an emperor.
As it is a very long topic, I only give a short excerpt here in order not to be boring:
CCP Is Ruled by Its Core Not by Its General Secretary or CMC (Central Military Commission) Chairman
A paramount leader (the term used by Westerners) or core (the term used by Deng Xiaoping) of CCP is an emperor rather than an official. He needs no official title but can still have the absolute power and he just does not retire (from his position as the core). The fact that Deng could sweep away overwhelming conservatism across the nation by his Southern Tour in 1992 (when he had retired from all official posts) proved the absolute authority of the core.
For people outside China ignorant of China’s traditional political systems, that is something wield, but if they have carefully studied Zhao Ziyang and Zishui Li’s memoirs, they certainly will understand my analysis. People who really know Chinese history certainly understand such special characteristic of Chinese politics.
Who is the core, i.e. de facto emperor now? I point out in my book including its first edition that it is Jiang Zemin.
Quite a few China watchers began to realize that when Jiang presided over a Politburo meeting to make the decision on punishing Bo Xilai others could not make in late September, 2012 as described in details in Chapter 16 of the 2nd Expanded Edition.
In the section titled “Signs of Jiang Zemin’s Intention to Have Xi Jinping Succeed Him as the Core” in the chapter, I described two signs that display Jiang’s intention:
First, the change in the order of appearance in media reports on January 22, 2013 where “the wreath placed in Jiang’s name came behind that of President Hu Jintao, party general secretary Xi Jinping and other PSC members at the funeral service for General Yang Baibing, who died at the age of 93 in Beijing on January 15, 2013. “
“It was the first time that Jiang’s name had been placed behind that of Politburo Standing Committee (PSC) members other than the general secretary since he retired as general secretary at the 16th Party Congress in 2002 and stood down from his last official post as chairman of the Central Military Commissions in late 2004.
“In Xinhua report earlier on the funeral of Bishop Ding Guangxun on November 27, 2012, Jiang’s name remained behind Hu and Xi but ahead of PSC member National People’s Congress chairman Wu Bangguo and Premier Wen Jiabao.
“Xinhua says the change in order was done at Jiang’s request. CCP is very particular about the order of appearance of leaders’ names in its official reports. The recent change in the order indicated Jiang’s desire for Xi to take over as the core.”
The second sign is described in the following paragraphs of the section:
Another clearer and more definite sign was found in the headline news at the website of China’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs on July 23 on Jiang Zemin meeting Henry Kissinger on July 3. In the meeting, Jiang said to Kissinger, “You know, a large country like China with 1.3 billion people needs a strong and vigorous leader.” “Xi Jinping is a state leader of great ability and wisdom. In such a huge country as China, undoubtedly there may be all sorts of problems, which are not fearful. The key is that the problems must be handled resolutely. Recently, some incidents of violent terrorist attacks occurred in China’s Xinjiang. Xi Jinping made decision resolutely and quickly controlled the situation.”
Moreover, Jiang Zemin told Kissinger that he talked with Xi Jinping over the phone not long ago and Xi asked Jiang to convey his greetings to Kissinger.
That again proved what this book describes about China’s core system. Jiang remains in charge and keeps on discussing state affairs with Xi Jinping. In the process, Jiang has been very satisfied with Xi’s performance so that he praised Xi highly before Kissinger. It proved that Jiang was happy that he had found the right successor to him as the core of CCP leadership.
In the expanded 2nd edition, I hold that the order of lineup when powerful elders appear on TV screen is more revealing of their ranks and strengths than that on the written news reports. There are detailed descriptions of elders’ lineup in Chapter 17 of the 2nd edition. Here I am going to describe Jiang’s status as emperor when he was given limelight at the concert commemorating the 65th anniversary of the founding of the Peoples’ Republic of China in Beijing yesterday.
According to an exclusive report by Hong Kong’s Ming Pao, in Xinhua News Agency’s written report the names of Jiang Zemin and other retired elders Li Peng, Wu Bangguo, Li Lanqing, Zeng Qinghong and He Guoqiang appear after the current CCP Politburo members.
However in Chinese official media’s photos and TV footage on the event, only Jiang appears and is given limelight. Jiang entered the music hall the second, right after Current CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping amid tremendous ovation. He is followed by all the current PSC members.
The most impressive is the order of lineup when Jiang left the hall. He went the first followed closely by Xi Jinping and then by Premier Li Keqiang.
No one but the emperor can go before the current top leader Xi Jinping!
Source: Chan Kai Yee Tiananmen’s Tremendous Achievements Expanded 2nd Edition
Source: Ming Pao “Jiang Zeming appears to listen to music along with Xi Jinping: National Day concert attended by all the seven PSC members” (summary by Chan Kai Yee based on the report in Chinese)
In my post on March 31 titled “College students are China’s hope for democracy; Over 100,000 protest in Taiwan”, I said, “We Chinese are proud of our college students. They are the driving force of Chinese history. See how similar are Taiwan college students’ Sunflower Campaign to Chinese college students’ campaign for democracy at Tiananmen Square 25 years ago. They are so disciplined and well-organized, strong but peaceful.”
Now, Hong Kong college students have come out to fight for democracy. Their courage and perfect organization and discipline are as admirable as the heroic students in Beijing and Taipei. They have won the support of thousands of Hong Kong people.
The following is the full text of Reuter’s report on their struggle:
Hong Kong democracy protesters defy tear gas, baton charge in historic standoff
Riot police advanced on Hong Kong democracy protesters in the early hours of Monday, firing volleys of tear gas after launching a baton-charge in the worst unrest there since China took back control of the former British colony two decades ago.
Some protesters erected barricades to block security forces amid chaotic scenes still unfolding just hours before one of the world’s major financial centers was due to open for business. Many roads leading to the Central business district remained sealed off as thousands defied police calls to retreat.
Earlier, police baton-charged a crowd blocking a key road in the government district in defiance of official warnings that the demonstrations were illegal.
Several scuffles broke out between police in helmets, gas masks and riot gear, with demonstrators angered by the firing of tear gas, last used in Hong Kong in 2005.
“If today I don’t stand up, I will hate myself in future,” said taxi driver Edward Yeung, 55, as he swore at police on the frontline. “Even if I get a criminal record it will be a glorious one.”
White clouds of gas wafting between some of the world’s most valuable office towers and shopping malls underscored the struggle that China’s Communist Party faces in stamping its will on Hong Kong’s more than 7 million people.
China took back control of Hong Kong from Britain in 1997.
Eight years earlier, Beijing’s bloody crackdown on pro-democracy students in Tiananmen Square in 1989 had sent shockwaves through Hong Kong as people saw how far China’s rulers would go to maintain their grip on power.
Thousands of protesters were still milling around the main Hong Kong government building, ignoring messages from student and pro-democracy leaders to retreat for fear that the police might fire rubber bullets.
Australia and Italy issued travel warnings for Hong Kong, urging their citizens to avoid protest sites. Some financial firms in the business district advised staff to work from home or from another location.
The U.S. State Department said in a statement on Sunday that Washington supported Hong Kong’s well-established traditions and fundamental freedoms, such as peaceful assembly and expression.
PEPPER SPRAY, TEAR GAS
The protests fanned out to the busy shopping district of Causeway Bay and across the harbor to Mong Kok, posing a greater challenge for authorities to contain, local media reported. The protesters brought traffic to a halt and called on Hong Kong leader Leung Chun-ying to step down.
Police, in lines five deep in places, earlier used pepper spray against activists and shot tear gas into the air. The crowds fled several hundred yards (meters), scattering their umbrellas and hurling abuse at police they called “cowards”.
Britain returned Hong Kong to Chinese rule under a formula known as “one country, two systems” that guaranteed a high degree of autonomy and freedoms not enjoyed in mainland China. Universal suffrage was set as an eventual goal.
But Beijing last month rejected demands for people to freely choose the city’s next leader, prompting threats from activists to shut down the Central business district. China wants to limit elections to a handful of candidates loyal to Beijing.
Communist Party leaders in Beijing are concerned that calls for democracy could spread to cities on the mainland.
In a move certain to unnerve authorities in Beijing, media in Taiwan reported that student leaders there had occupied the lobby of Hong Kong’s representative office on the island in a show of support for the democracy protesters.
Hong Kong leader Leung had earlier pledged “resolute” action against the protest movement, known as Occupy Central with Love and Peace.
“The police are determined to handle the situation appropriately in accordance with the law,” Leung said, less than two hours before the police charge began.
“NEVER GIVE UP”
Police had not used tear gas in Hong Kong since breaking up protests by South Korean farmers against the World Trade Organisation in 2005.
“We will fight until the end … we will never give up,” said Peter Poon, a protester in his 20s, adding that he may have to retreat temporarily during the night.
Police denied rumors that they had used rubber bullets.
A spokesperson for China’s Hong Kong and Macau Affairs Office said the central government fully supported Hong Kong’s handling of the situation “in accordance with the law”.
Such dissent would never be tolerated on the mainland, where the phrase “Occupy Central” was blocked on Sunday on Weibo, China’s version of Twitter. It had been allowed earlier in the day.
A tearful Occupy organizer, Benny Tai, said he was proud of people’s determination to fight for “genuine” universal suffrage, but that the situation was getting out of control, local broadcaster RTHK reported. He said he believed he would face heavy punishment for initiating the movement.
Protesters huddled in plastic capes, masks and goggles as they braced for a fresh police attempt to clear them from the financial district before Hong Kong re-opens for business. The city’s financial markets are expected to open as usual on Monday. [ID:nL3N0RT0KT]
“WE WILL WIN WITH LOVE AND PEACE”
Publishing tycoon Jimmy Lai, a key backer of the democracy movement, joined the protesters.
“The more Hong Kong citizens come, the more unlikely the police can clear up the place,” said Lai, also wearing a plastic cape and protective glasses. “Even if we get beaten up, we cannot fight back. We will win this war with love and peace.”
Pro-democracy Hong Kong lawmaker Lee Cheuk-yan said three fellow legislators were among a small group of activists detained by police, including democratic leaders Albert Ho and Emily Lau.
Organizers said as many as 80,000 people thronged the streets in Admiralty district, galvanized by the arrests of student activists on Friday. No independent estimate of the crowd numbers was available.
A week of protests escalated into violence when student-led demonstrators broke through a cordon late on Friday and scaled a fence to invade the city’s main government compound.
Police used pepper spray to disperse the crowd. The Hong Kong Federation of Students has extended class boycotts indefinitely and called on the city’s leader to step down.
Police have so far arrested 78 people, including Joshua Wong, the 17-year-old leader of student group Scholarism, who was dragged away after calling on protesters to charge the government premises.
Wong was released without charge on Sunday night. He told reporters he planned to return to the protest site after resting. Student leaders Alex Chow and Lester Shum have also been released.
Source: Reuters “Hong Kong democracy protesters defy tear gas, baton charge in historic standoff”
Related posts at tiananmenstremendousachievements.wordpress.com:
- China asserts paternal rights over Hong Kong in democracy clash dated September 12, 2014
- Hong Kong Democracy a Model for China’s Democratization dated September 6, 2014
- The Wise Way to Fight for Democracy in Hong Kong dated September 3, 2014
- Hong Kong braces for protests as China rules out full democracy dated September 1, 2014
- Beijing Tightening Its Grip of Hong Kong by Various Means dated July 2, 2014
- College students are China’s hope for democracy; Over 100,000 protest in Taiwan dated March 31, 2014
My previous post “Mystery of China’s Anti-submarine Technology” points out that anti-submarine capability is a vital issue that affects the outcome of any military conflict. Obviously, in the foreseeable future, that issue will be foreign intelligence agencies’ focus of attention and China will make huge efforts to prevent them from obtaining accurate information about that.
Previously there was news on China’s development of its new Gaoxin-6 anti-submarine aircraft. Recently, four photos have been posted on the Internet of the newest test flight of Gaoxin-6 no. 732, the second of China’s newest anti-submarine patrol aircraft (the first being no. 731). Yesterday, Huanqiu.com, an affiliate of Chinese government’s mouthpiece People’s Daily, published a report on and four photos of the said aircraft, but the report and photos were soon withdrawn perhaps due to China’s efforts to maintain confidential its anti-submarine capabilities.
This blogger had time only to download one of the four photos.
Source: huanqiu.com “Test flight of a second China-made new-type anti-submarine patrol aircraft” (summary by Chan Kai Yee based on the report in Chinese)
Related posts at tiananmenstremendousachievements wordpress.com:
- Mystery of China’s Anti-submarine Technology dated May 14, 2014
- Stolen US technology in China’s new antisubmarine aircraft dated July 6, 2012
- China’s Gaoxing-6 Anti-submarine aircraft Ends Free Movement of US Submarines dated October 31, 2013
- Photos of Recent Test Flight of Gaoxin-6 Anti-submarine Aircraft dated December 18, 2013
- China’s Gaoxin-6 (GX-6) Anti-submarine Aircraft as Powerful as US P-3C dated April 27, 2014
Human race’s progress is a history of pursuit and then application of knowledge. Pursuit aims at application to bring about prosperity and wealth.
The undesirable byproduct is the application of knowledge in developing weapons to kill one another and even exterminate the human race.
During the Cold War, the US and Soviet Union vied with each other to spend as much as they can in their space programs mainly for the number-one position in space competition instead of application of the knowledge learnt from space to benefit their peoples.
The heavy financial burdens of space competition and arms race are one of the major causes for the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The US is the first and only country that has sent people to the moon, but that was aimed at obtaining the number one position in the world instead of bringing some benefit from the moon. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the US has greatly reduced its space program. Why? It has to use its resourced to maintain its world leadership while lunar exploration has nothing to do with that.
Due to pragmatism, China’s lunar program aims at going to the moon to exploit the resources there. The knowledge the human race has obtained through its lunar program must be applied to bring benefit to the human race.
There is lots of ice and solar energy on the moon that can be exploited in building Chinese colony on the moon. Water can be electrolyzed to generate oxygen to be used in farms to grow food and maintain biological balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the colony. Using the abundant solar energy on the moon, China can exploit the rich mineral resources on the moon.
The helium-3 is especially useful for China as it alone will resolve China’s energy problem forever.
Helium-3 is an isotope of helium, very light in weight. Nuclear fusion of helium-3 is very efficient in generating lots of electricity free of waste. The radiation from the fusion is negligible. Unfortunately, there is almost no helium-3 on earth.
However, there is quite a lot of helium-3 on the moon. It has come from the sun for billions of years in solar wind. As a result the dust on the surface of the moon is filled with helium-3. There must be about 1.1 million tons of helium-3 deposit from the surface to the depth of a few meters on the moon. The electricity generated by 40 tons of helium-3 is equal to the annual consumption of electricity in the United States. Nuclear fusion of helium-3 will greatly reduce world consumption of fossil fuels and greatly enhance human productivity.
In addition, China can establish factories on the moon to produce quite a few things that are very expensive to produce on earth. It will make China’s lunar program a very profitable enterprise.
The United States is interested first of all in sending people to Mars. That will make it the number one in space competition. The US has to incur lots of spending for that but get no economic return at all from it.
In order to be the first to send people to Mars, the US plans to build and test a huge rocket that can carry a load of 77 tons, which may cost $18 billion.
China is also interested in sending people to Mars, but due to its pragmatism, it has first to make its lunar program bring beneficial returns. It will first build factories on the moon to repair and then build spacecrafts. Using the abundant solar energy on the moon, China can electrolyze water to get abundant oxygen and hydrogen as fuel for its space ships. The low temperature on the moon will enable China to liquidize the fuel very easily.
As there is much smaller gravity and no air resistance, the fuel required in sending a space ship to Mars from the moon will be much less than sending a spacecraft to Mars from the earth so that the space ship can be much smaller.
Yesterday, I reblogged China Daily Mail’s article “India and China’s pragmatism to challenge U.S. superpower status” that first published by Foreign Policy.
The article regards China and India as the countries that regard pragmatism as their guiding philosophy and the US as that regards liberalism as the guiding philosophy. In fact, in early 20th century, pragmatism was the dominant philosophy in the US and enabled it to become a superpower. I do not think that the US has given up pragmatism. However, perhaps when there is conflict between pragmatism and liberalism, liberalism prevails so that the contending parties cannot compromise pragmatically in the interest of the country and people.
The most serious problem in failing to be pragmatic is US blind pursuit of the number one position in the world. The above-mentioned plan to send people to Mars is one example.
Another example is US development of too many too advanced aircraft carriers. Its existing ones are already too good in the world for any other countries to build any rival to them. What is the purpose to develop even more advanced ones that are even more expensive to build and maintain? Since the US is facing drastic cuts in its military budget, it shall divert the funds allocated to the carriers to the development of weapons it has urgent need for maintaining its military superiority.
China is also spending a lot in developing its navy, but it is pragmatic in that the navy is developed for defending its interests first of all in the South China Sea; therefore, it has to make great efforts to obtain returns to its investment in navy from the fishery, fish farming, tourism and oil and gas exploitation there.
China has drawn up and been implementing its plan on that. It has built at lease six artificial islands for that and has designed to build a 200,000 fishing and fish farming industrial ship to be stationed at Mischief Reef. If the ship proves successful, China will build quite a few such ships. The fishery and fish farming in the South China Sea with deep clean water and good tropical climate will enable China to produce lots of fish for its huge population.
Source: huanqiu.com “US research and development of a rocket with thrust bigger than 4,000 tons to carry people to Mars” (summary by Chan Kai Yee based on the report in Chinese”
Source: China Daily Mail “India and China’s pragmatism to challenge U.S. superpower status”
- India and China’s pragmatism to challenge U.S. superpower status dated yesterday
- US World Leadership More Important than Improving Economy? dated July 11, 2014
- China to Get Energy Hegemony by Taking Nuclear Fusion Material from the Moon dated June 19, 2014
Some analysts are nervous when they find Chinese President Xi Jinping upholding Mao Zedong Thought. Will Xi resume Mao’s policies of class struggle and constant revolution? they wonder.
Xi’s predecessor Hu Jintao tried to omit Mao Zedong Thought but enabled Bo Xilai to rally the vast number of conservatives around Bo to fight against the reformists and obstruct Hu’s further reform, which Xi is able to carry out now.
The fierce power struggle between the conservatives and reformists and the defeat of Bo are described in details in the second expanded edition of my book Tiananmen’s Tremendous Achievements.
I point out in the book that the current core of CCP (Chinese Communist Party) Dynasty Jiang Zemin made the decision on punishing Bo harshly in late September 2012, but he did not deal with the power struggle between the conservatives and reformists.
It was Xi Jinping who used his China dream to rally both the powerful conservative and reformists around him and put an end to their fierce power struggle. To win over conservatives, he certainly has to use some of their terms.
The term of China dream was borrowed from Liu Mingfu, a conservative Maoist PLA senior colonel, who wrote the bestseller China Dream that advocates China’s military rise to surpass the US. Hu Jintao banned its reprint due to the book’s Maoist ideas.
Xi exploits conservatives’ China dream but has extended its meaning to make it mean the revival of the Chinese nation.
That’s a very long topic. If interested please refer to chapters 13 and 19 of my book Tiananmen’s Tremendous Achievements Expanded 2nd Edition.
Here I have to point out Xi uses Mao’s term but imbue it with new meaning.
In my book, I describe in details the difference between the three mass lines: CCP’s traditional, Mao’s and Xi Jinping’s mass lines and point out Xi’s wisdom to imbue Maoism with his own idea.
That’s too much to write about here. I have only to point out there is a CCP document on certain historical issues, the tenets of which are stressed by Deng Xiaoping in the recent TV series on De Xiaoping:
1. Mao Zedong Thought was developed by the old generation of CCP leaders including Mao, Liu Shaqi, Zhou Enlai, Zhu De, Chen Yun, etc. Mao represented the Thought.
2. Mao’s later ideas such as class struggle and constant revolution are wrong. They are negated in the document along the Cultural Revolution, which Mao launched based on those ideas.
3. The essence of Mao Zedong Thought is pragmatism, i.e. the doctrine of “Practice is the sole criterion for testing truth.” It is repeated again and again through Deng’s mouth in the TV series.
Therefore, there are no grounds for some analysts’ worry about the revival of Mao’s later ideas of class struggle and constant revolution that have been negated by the CCP itself.
As for whether Xi will become an autocratic despot like Mao, I don’t know. It depends on Xi’s personality, which may change due to old age. Anyway, it is possible for a tyrant like Mao to emerge in China’s current system of CCP Dynasty with a core like an emperor and there is no mechanism to remove such a tyrant if there is no change in the system.
The following is the full text of SCMP’s report on analysts’ views on Xi’s stress of Mao Zedong Thought:
Party must embrace Mao spirit to survive, Xi Jinping quoted as saying
Party papers shed new light on leader’s views about the importance of ‘Great Helmsman’
President Xi Jinping has reiterated the close relationship between the party’s survival and upholding Mao Zedong thought, according to newly released documents collected since the party’s 18th congress in November 2012.
Xi has urged party members to embrace of the “spirit” of Mao – a guiding party doctrine including class struggle and constant revolution to ensure the party’s survival – prompting analysts to say he might turn out as autocratic as the “Great Helmsman”.
In a study course chaired by Xi on January 5 last year, on the topic of maintaining and developing China’s special form of socialism, Xi stressed that an evaluation of Mao was “not just a theoretical issue, but a political question for China and the international community”.
In the collection, published recently, Xi also cites Deng Xiaoping’s affirmation of Mao’s contribution to the party’s development, saying China would fall into chaos if it “totally repudiates Mao thought”.
“Just imagine how our party could be tenable if we abandoned [the spirit] of Comrade Mao Zedong. Our socialistic system … the whole country would fall into chaos”, the president was quoted as saying in one of the eight articles, which have been made public for the first time.
In his speech, according to the article, Xi also called on senior cadres to learn the lessons of the collapse of the former Soviet Union, one of the main ones being that “almost all party members [in the USSR] gave up their ideological thinking”.
Hong Kong-based political commentator Johnny Lau Yui-siu said it was contradictory for Xi to promote Deng and Mao.
“Deng is remembered for his pragmatic style, while Mao launched the Cultural Revolution and a series of violent and political struggles from the 1950s to the 1970s, which still leave painful memories for the Chinese people,” Lau said. “It might make people worry whether Xi will be as dictatorial as Mao, even though he abides by Deng’s legacy of economic reform.”
Professor Jean-Philippe Beja, a senior researcher at the French Centre for Studies on Modern and Contemporary China in Hong Kong, said China’s ideological campaigns had shifted towards the left since Xi came to power nearly two years ago.
“All of Xi’s slogans, including ‘catching big tigers’ and ‘taking the mass line’ that have emerged from the ongoing nationwide anti-graft campaign, originate from Mao,” Beja said, adding that he was worried that China would further restrain political reform and human rights.
“Xi’s political advisers have just adopted old thinking and violent, rough measures to deal with today’s complicated social and political problems arising from the economic development of the past three decades.”
In the new collection of documents, Xi also requests cadres to report changes in their personal lives, including divorce, remarriage, and whether they have sent all their family overseas.
“We will not leave the party in a good position if we discover such information on the internet, then have to rush to confirm with them later,” Xi was quoted as saying at a meeting in January.
He also criticised party officials who had built up special personal relationships, or guanxi, for personal benefit.
“We shouldn’t turn the relationship between party leaders and subordinates into the feudal monarch-minister style,” one article quotes Xi as saying. This also violates Mao’s thinking, he adds.
Xi’s reiteration of Mao’s thinking indicated that he would emulate Mao’s vigorous style to sweep away corruption on the mainland to win public support, Lau said.
“Xi is the second party chief after Jiang Zemin to stress that the party would be overturned if it failed to rein in corrupt officials,” he said. “Jiang failed, but Xi hopes promoting Mao will help him push the anti-graft campaign forward.”
Source: Chan Kai Yee Tiananmen’s Tremendous Achievements Expanded 2nd Edition
Source: SCMP “Party must embrace Mao spirit to survive, Xi Jinping quoted as saying”
The writer is clear that China affects others with its pragmatism but does not seek world leadership. The U.S. wants to maintain its world leadership but whether it will be able to depends on its ability to make its liberalism work.
When Narendra Modi greeted Xi Jinping with the idea of “INCH (India and China) towards MILES (Millennium of Exceptional Synergy)” [Note 1], the new age of “pragmatism”-based multi-polarity has taken another great step to replace the fading age of liberalism-based dominance by the United States.
In terms of military might, innovation capability, financial market leverage, natural resources endowment, and natural science progression, BRICS plus MIKT (Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, Turkey) or CIVETS or “Next Eleven” altogether are no match with the USA. Yet, both analysts and ordinary people in the street can more or less sense that the U.S.-led unipolarity is under serious threat, especially from China.
Make no mistake, for example, China’s weaponry is at least two decades behind the Americans. Take a look at the latest Zumwalt destroyer and the X-478 Unmanned Combat Air System on board of USS George…
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China’s stealth fighter jets are its well guarded secrets. There has been little official news about them.
Here we have a recent report on China’s J-31 stealth fighter jet by mil.huanqiu.com, an affiliate of Chinese government’s mouthpiece People’s Daily. This blogger believes the report provide some authentic information and give its summary below:
Having been tested for two years since the maiden flight, there is no need to repeat common tests of J-31 stealth fighter jet now. People want to see some change in the test to indicate some progress in developing China’s second type of stealth fighter jet.
In its recent test, two λ shaped lines were seen at the back of each of its wings. Aviation professionals believe that the lines are sensors to collect relevant data of the vortex that flows past the lines.
Therefore, some analysts believe collection of such data is related to the design of an improved version of J-31. That was the case with J-20. When quite a few tests have been carried out on the prototypes nos. 2001 and 2002 of the first version of J-20, a new version was designed and made with quite a few improvements.
They believe the same will be done to J-31, especially reference can be made to the experience in designing and making the second version of J-20.
In early July, China Aviation News regarded J-31 as a new generation of medium-sized fighter jet with breakthroughs in pneumatic, stealth and structural designs.
During the mid-September press conference for the 10th China International Aviation & Aerospace Exhibition, it was announced that quite a few important aircrafts that have drawn attention at home and abroad will be on show at the Exhibition. China’s Y-20 heavy transport aircraft will be one of the exhibits.
People are much interest in the question of whether a physical prototype of J-31 will be one of the exhibits as quite a few China’s aviation equipment customers are interested in buying it. A country that has joined China in developing and making a certain light fighter jet, hopes that it will be allowed to participate in the development of J-31 in the same manner of the development of the light fighter jet.
China has been making intensive efforts in developing J-20 and adopts a little too aggressive a design that attaches great importance to its supersonic speed. However, when batch production of J-20 has begun, China will pay attention to further major improvement of its stealth fighters. J-31 with satisfactory undetectability will be a satisfactory multirole and multifunction supplement for J-20.
Source: mil.huanqiu.com “Mystic lines appeared on J-31 fighter jet in its recent test flight: It is said quite a few countries are discussing purchase of it” (summary by Chan Kai Yee based on the report in Chinese)
Related posts at tiananmenstremendousachievements.worrdpress.com:
- China Begins Intensive Test Flights of J-20 Prototypes dated July 26, 2014
- China’s J-20 Stealth Fighter Armed with PL-10 missile Is Superior to US F-22 dated July 8, 2014
- China’s New J-20 Equipped with EODAS Similar to F-35 Surpasses F-22 dated March 18, 2014
- China’s New J-20 with More Powerful Engine, Better Undetectability–Major General Zhu Heping dated March 5, 2014
- Details of New-Version J-20 Stealth Fighter Jet with Lots of Improvement dated January 19, 2014
According to a popular Chinese article, China will certainly fight six wars in the coming five decades with seven of its neighbors, Russia, Taiwan, Japan, India, Mongolia, Vietnam and the Philippines.
Russia is China’s close ally. As for the border issue that may give rise to a war according to the article, China and Russia have concluded a treaty to clear set the border between the two countries long ago.
Tension has eased with Vietnam after a Vietnamese high official’s visit to China.
The greatest issues are the tension with two Asian powers India and Japan.
Recently, India received Chinese President Xi Jinping’s visit with great enthusiasm, but lots of analysts believe that China’s rise constitutes a threat to India especially when the border dispute between the two countries have not been resolved.
True enough, while Xi was in India, there is quite sensational news on the standoff between Chinese and Indian border troops. However, China and India are wise to have resolved the problem.
Current Chinese leaders, however, seek China’s peaceful rise. If they really want peaceful rise, they have to ease the tension between China and its neighbors.
According to The Times of India’s report on Sep. 26, Indian foreign minister said in New York that the two countries had resolved the issue and their border troops would retreat by Sep. 30.
Like Chinese leaders, Indian new Prime Minister Modi is wise. He knows that he cannot stop China’s rise, but he can run India satisfactorily to enable it to rise as tremendously as China. When India has grown strong, it needs not be afraid of China’s rise.
Therefore, instead of inventing some trick to contain China, he is trying his best to have the best possible relation with China in order to get the best possible assistance and fund from China for India’s rise.
He is clearly aware that Russia and China’s Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) to India’s north, Pakistan’s close alliance with China and potential SCO membership may constitute a threat to India but is wise to strengthen India’s ties with Japan to use Japan as a counterweight.
The US is trying hard to win him over, but he has conservation. Since the US turned China to Russian side, there has been great change in Asian geopolitical situation. The Russian-Chinese alliance plus the SCO and Chinese-Pakistani alliance have become quite a strong united front in challenging the US. He knows that he should not be too close to the US to incur the enmity of the strong united front of those neighbors.
Xi Jinping’s Indian visit proves a diplomatic victory to achieve China’s goal, but it is not a unilateral victory. It is a win-win outcome, in which both China and India have attained their goals to become winners.
Japanese politicians are mostly wise. When the US was containing China, Japan dared not establish diplomatic relations with China, knowing well the great economic benefit such relations may bring. Soon after US President Nixon’s China visit, in a hurry, the then Japanese prime minister visited China and established diplomatic relations with China.
Seeing US failure to contain China with its pivot to Asia, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe wants to make concession to improve relations with China. He uses as an excuse Japan’s desire to become a permanent member of UN Security Council. China is a permanent Security Council member that oppose Japan’s membership most strongly.
He had his press conference on improving relations with China broadcast live in Tokyo in order to win Japanese popular support for his move.
That is a clear sign of the looming of Chinese victory in dealing with its relations with Japan.
Will that also be a win-win outcome? I believe so as Japan will get huge gains if China succeeds in its new round of economic reform to further liberate Chinese economy.
Now, the leaders of the four Asian powers Russia, China, Japan and India are all wise. It is very interesting to watch their tricks in outwitting one another.
The following is the full text of Reuters report on Abe seeking better ties with China:
Japan PM Abe says seeks better ties with China, South Korea, Russia
Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said he wants to improve relations with China, South Korea and Russia, while acknowledging difficulties facing ties with his country’s Asia-Pacific neighbors.
“Quiet efforts are needed” if Abe is to achieve his goal of meeting Chinese President Xi Jinping on the sidelines of a November Pacific Rim meeting in Beijing, Abe told a news conference in New York on Thursday evening.
The news conference was broadcast live in Tokyo.
Abe, who came to office in December 2012, visited all the leaders of Southeast Asia in his first year, but he has not been able to meet bilaterally with the leaders of China or South Korea, countries angered by territorial disputes with Japan and Abe’s approach to Japan’s wartime past.
He has met Russia’s President Vladimir Putin five times, but ties have recently been strained as Moscow annexed Ukraine’s Crimea region and pro-Russian rebels fought Ukrainian forces in eastern Ukraine.
Source: huanqiu.com “Indian Foreign Minister says China and India will cease border standoff and begin withdrawing their troops immediately” (summary by Chan Kai Yee based on the report in Chinese)
Source: Reuters “Japan PM Abe says seeks better ties with China, South Korea, Russia”
Related posts at tiananmenstremendousachievements.wordpress.com:
- Strong Sign of Thawing in Relations between China and Japan dated yesterday
- CHINA’S GREATER ASIA CO-PROSPERITY SPHERE dated January 29, 2012
- China’s dream of a greater Asia co-prosperity sphere dated June 28, 2012
- Can Japan, China, South Korea Resume Efforts on APT Free Trade Zone dated September 20, 2014