Powerful Dragon v Raptor: how China’s J-20 stealth fighters compare with America’s F-22s


China’s most advanced jet is one of the few fifth-generation fighters in active service. Here’s how it compares to its closest US counterpart

PUBLISHED : Saturday, 28 July, 2018, 9:29pm
UPDATED : Saturday, 28 July, 2018, 9:29pm

China’s new J-20, officially named Weilong or powerful dragon, is one of the world’s most advanced fighter jets and the country’s answer to the American F-22 Raptor.

In mid July the PLA Airforce released a video of a nighttime training exercise involving the stealth fighter as a demonstration of its combat readiness.

The Chinese warplane was developed by the Chengdu Aerospace corporation, which began testing them in 2011 before the first planes entered service in March 2017.

So far a few dozen J-20s have been produced for the PLA although the manufacturer is continuing to build more.

The F-22 Raptor was developed by Lockheed Martin for the exclusive use of the US Air Force. Exports even to America’s closest allies are banned to protect its stealth technology.

Its maiden flight was in September 1997 and it entered service in December 2005. In 2011 production was terminated because of the high costs involved and lack – at the time – of any aircraft that could challenge its dominance.
America is planning to upgrade the fighter in future but for now it remains, along with the Weilong, one of the most advanced fifth generation fighters in the world.

Both single-seat fighters have stealth capabilities, which means they are designed to avoid detection by radar. Here is how the two compare.
Design characteristics

The J-20 and F-22 are a similar size. The J-20 is 20.3 metres (66.6ft) long and has a 12.9 metre wingspan compared with the F-22’s 19m length and 13.6m wingspan.
Made of advance alloy materials, they also have similar empty weight of around 19,000kg.

The J-20’s loaded weight is slightly heavier, of around 32,000kg compared with the F-22’s 29,000kg, however the American fighter can take off with a maximum weight of 38,000kg, 2,000kg more than the J-20.

Performance
Both planes have a ceiling of 20km and a maximum speed of over Mach 2 (2,470km per hour) – faster than the speed of sound. The F-22 has a comparatively shorter range – with a combat radius of 800km, while the J-20’s large internal fuel tank can sustain a longer combat radius of 1,100km.

Engine
The F-22 is powered by afterburning turbofan F119-PW-100 engines, which enable it to super cruise at a speed of Mach 1.82. The engines have vectoring nozzles which enable it to perform agile manoeuvres event at supersonic speeds.

However, the engine is the J-20’s weakest link. Plans for China to develop its own advanced turbofan engines fell behind schedule. This meant the manufacturers had to rely on inferior engines – either the Chinese WS-10B or Russian-made AL-31FM2/3 – which severely affects its manoeuvrability and stealth capacity at supersonic speeds.

However, the new WS-15 engine, which is expected to be available next year, will go a long way to addressing this problem.

Stealth
The J-20’s frontal and side stealth capacities are believed to be excellent. But it is thought to be more vulnerable to radar from the rear compared with the F-22.

Armaments
To maintain stealth, both fighters carry their weapons in internal bays. The J-20 can carry up to six air-to-air missiles, fewer than the F-22. But thanks to larger space in each bay, the J-20 can carry longer range missiles and the LS-6 precision-guided bomb.

So far it has not been confirmed to have any guns, although some analysts believe it would be able to carry extended guns.

China’s J-20 stealth fighter jet lines up for combat duty, boosting firepower in the sky
The F-22 can hold up to eight short or medium-range air-to-air or air-to-ground missiles. It also has an M61 Vulcan gun in addition to four under-wing drop tank points, which allow it to carry extra fuel or missile launchers.

Avionics
Both aircraft possess highly integrated avionics and sensor equipment, featuring a low-observable, active electronically scanned array (AESA) that can track multiple targets in any weather.

It was reported by Shenzhen TV that the J-20’s Type AESA radar system is “totally similar” to the F-22’s AN/APG-77 system.

Cost
The F-22 production was axed because of its high cost – US$62 billion for the whole project, which equates to US$339 million per aircraft.

The J-20’s research and development cost was estimated to be more than 30 billion yuan (US$4.4 billion), with a cost per aircraft of US$100-110 million.

Source: SCMP “Powerful Dragon v Raptor: how China’s J-20 stealth fighters compare with America’s F-22s”

Note: This is SCMP’s article I post here for readers’ information. It does not mean that I agree or disagree with the article’s views.


5 Comments on “Powerful Dragon v Raptor: how China’s J-20 stealth fighters compare with America’s F-22s”

  1. Simon says:

    It did not mention anything about the J 20 two internal side weapons bay which closes it doors once the missiles are on standby. This reduces radar detection and increase stealth unlike the F 22 which becomes vulnerable everytime they left the door open to fire a shot.
    Also it omitted costly and time consuming maintenance of the F22. For every hour flown it takes about 45hrs maintenance. In a combat situation only a small portion of F22 are combat ready while most are stuck in a maintenance cycle.

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  2. Anonymous says:

    Very poor article, does not mention the IRST on the J-20 or its larger weapons bays and more modern missiles. Also the J-20s radar is not at all “similar” to the APG-77V1, it is a good deal more powerful according to Chinese state media.

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    • Anonymous says:

      My mistake, it does mention larger weapons bays for the J-20.

      Still, I feel like this article should mention the fact that the WS-15 engine is not merely an analogue to the F-119-PW-100, but a good deal more powerful. In fact, the WS-10G engine is a rough analogue.

      Furthermore the article is a bit vague with information, like for instance where it mentions that both aircraft have “a top speed over mach 2”; it should mention that the J-20 (when equipped with WS-15) is significantly faster than the F-22 at around 3000 km/h.

      Also to the best of my knowledge, the J-20 combat radius is closer to 2000 km not merely 1100 km.

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      • Anonymous says:

        “…WS-15 engine is not merely an analogue to the F-119-PW-100, but a good deal more powerful.”

        Maybe if the WS-15 would stop throwing turbine blades and was reliable you could compare it to the much older F-119 PW engine. At this time the ability to manufacture a decent engine is the Achilles heel of the J-20.

        And the United States has not been standing still. While China wrestles with making the WS-15 workable, the US is finishing up flight testing an adaptive, 45,000-lb.-thrust-class combat powerplant for sixth-generation combat aircraft. This engine is sized for retro-fitting into F-35s. These includes British and Japanese F-35s.

        Adaptable engines use an array of variable geometry devices to dynamically alter the fan pressure ratio and overall bypass ratio—the two key factors influencing specific fuel consumption and thrust. Fan pressure ratio is changed by using an adaptive, multistage fan. This increases the fan pressure ratio to fighter-engine performance levels during takeoff and acceleration, and in cruise lowers it to airliner-like levels for improved fuel efficiency.

        To further complicate Chinese air to air problems these new engines are designed to have the power to drive lasers and microwave weapons powerful enough blind PLAN AWACs and sweep the J-20 from the skies.

        As we enter the 2020’s, China will face a whole new set of problems being competitive in the air. Even though J-20 is the best China can put in the air today it will not be enough for tomorrow.

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