The Education Xi Jinping Has Received to Be a Revolutionary
At home, Xi Jinping received education about revolution from his father Xi Zhongxun, a well-known communist revolutionary.
At school, he received the education to be a firm revolutionary fighter. It was the education for all students at that time.
A typical lesson in the textbook for secondary school students to be brave in fighting for revolution is the Chinese translation of Gorky’s prose poem Storm Petrel, the English translation of which is copied from Baidu and provided below:
The Stormy Petrel
High above the silvery ocean winds are gathering the storm-clouds, and between the clouds and ocean proudly wheels the Stormy Petrel, like a streak of sable lightning.
Now his wing the wave caresses, now he rises like an arrow, cleaving clouds and crying fiercely, while the clouds detect a rapture in the bird’s courageous crying.
In that crying sounds a craving for the tempest! Sounds the flaming of his passion, of his anger, of his confidence in triumph.
The gulls are moaning in their terror–moaning, darting o’er the waters, and would gladly hide their horror in the inky depths of ocean.
And the grebes are also moaning. Not for them the nameless rapture of the struggle. They are frightened by the crashing of the thunder.
And the foolish penguins cower in the crevices of rocks, while alone the Stormy Petrel proudly wheels above the ocean, o’er the silver-frothing waters.
Ever lower, ever blacker, sink the stormclouds to the sea, and the singing waves are mounting in their yearning toward the thunder.
Strikes the thunder. Now the waters fiercely battle with the winds. And the winds in fury seize them in unbreakable embrace, hurtling down the emerald masses to be shattered on the cliffs.
Like a streak of sable lightning wheels and cries the Stormy Petrel, piercing storm-clouds like an arrow, cutting swiftly through the waters.
He is coursing like a Demon, the black Demon of the tempest, ever laughing, ever sobbing–he is laughing at the storm-clouds, he is sobbing with his rapture.
In the crashing of the thunder the wise Demon hears a murmur of exhaustion. And he knows the storm will die and the sun will be triumphant; the sun will always be triumphant!
The waters roar. The thunder crashes. Livid lightning flares in stormclouds high above the seething ocean, and the flaming darts are captured and extinguished by the waters, while the serpentine reflections writhe, expiring, in the deep.
It’s the storm! The storm is breaking!
Still the valiant Stormy Petrel proudly wheels among the lightning, o’er the roaring, raging ocean, and his cry resounds exultant, like a prophecy of triumph–
Let it break in all its fury!
Let the storm of revolution break in all its fury! That is Gorky’s description of a revolutionary’s mindset in the storm of a revolution.
That prose poem remained in secondary school Chinese language textbooks for a long time since the communist takeover in China. It was popular among students and inspired them to be brave in fighting for revolution. Chinese teenagers’ enthusiasm during the Cultural Revolution proved that.
My Colleague Wu’s Bravery in War with South Vietnam Also Proved That
When I worked as an electrician in a large chemical plant, I had a new colleague just retired from navy. I was told that he was a war hero but we did not think so as just like other electricians, he was fond of making funs, joking and even playing pranks.
We asked him to tell us about his heroic deeds in the navy that made him honored as a war hero. He said that he was just lucky to have the opportunity to fight in a real combat.
He said that when he joined the navy, he thought it would be dull in the military as it was in peace time so that he would never have the chance to fight in a war. He received training as an electrician on the warship as he was good at science and mathematics at school. That job was interesting but it was not what he joined the navy for.
He said, “It happened that we had an encounter with South Vietnamese navy. We usually avoid meeting them but due to some misinformation, we had a surprise encounter. We tried hard to run away as we were told to avoid fighting an enemy better equipped than us. We had to prevent our valuable naval assets from being destroyed by the enemy.
“However, before we were able to sail away, the Vietnamese opened fire and hit our warship. Our gunner was injured and had to be brought down to receive treatment. I had been trained as the stand-by gunner but had never thought I would have the chance to fight as a gunner. However, I received gunner training conscientiously as I was told by our commander that in peace time my job as the electrician is most important but in a war the gunner was most important. If the gunner was unable to hit, destroy and even sink enemy’s warship, we will be hit and even be sunk by the enemy.”
He told us that his first shot missed but he made quick readjustment so that the next few shots all hit and finally sank the enemy warship. The others all ran away so that the Chinese fleet won the battle. He was awarded a citation of merit along with quite a few others alive or dead for their performance in the battle.
“Were you not afraid? It was the first time you were under gunfire, ” asked one of my young colleagues.
He said, “You all have read Gorky’s Stormy Petrel in our textbooks. At that time, I was a stormy petrel waiting for storm. I am excited that the storm had really come.”
Xi Jinping Also a Stormy Petrel in Revolutionary Storms
The first generation of the communists in CCP, risked their lives to fight and win their revolution. Xi is not required to fight like them, but he took similar risks in his fight for Chinese revolution.
He took great risks in fighting rampant corruption when he took over the reign. The greatest risks were his fight against retired generals who controlled Chinese military and powerful retired senior official who controlled Chinese police.
He has restored socialism in China with his Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. In the course of the establishment of the Thought, he conducted a revolution in CCP to restore it as revolutionary party fighting for communism. By so doing he has put an end to the degeneration of CCP into a huge vested interest.
His recent visit to North Korea and his Belt and Road initiative told us that he has been making efforts for the recovery of the socialist camp. It is a new form of communist world revolution commensurate with the new situation in the world. There will be no violent revolution but peaceful win-win cooperation for common prosperity. In stead of world communism, he is making great efforts to establish a world community with shared destiny.
Those will be elaborated in my later posts
Article by Chan Kai Yee
February 27, 2019
BEIJING (Reuters) – China’s ruling Communist Party warned party members on Wednesday to stick to Marx and Lenin and not believe in “ghosts and spirits”, in the latest effort to root out superstitious practices.
China officially guarantees freedom of religion for major belief systems like Christianity, Buddhism and Islam, but party members are meant to be atheists and are especially banned from participating in what China calls superstitious practices like visiting soothsayers.
There have been numerous scandals in recent years where senior party members have been accused of involvement in superstition.
A lengthy statement on how best to strengthen the party’s role and its leadership, issued on the official Xinhua news agency, said Marxism was the guiding thought for China and the party. “Resolutely prevent not believing in Marx and Lenin and believing in ghosts and spirits, not believing in the truth and believing in money,” the party statement said.
“Resolutely oppose all forms of mistaken thought that distorts, misrepresents or negates Marxism.”
President Xi Jinping said last year that the party’s decision to stick with the political theories of Karl Marx remained “totally correct”, to mark the 200th anniversary of the German philosopher’s birth.
Chinese people, especially the country’s leaders, have a long tradition of putting their faith in soothsaying and geomancy, looking for answers in times of doubt, need and chaos.
The practice has grown more risky amid a sweeping crackdown on deep-seated corruption launched by Xi upon assuming power in late 2012, in which dozens of senior officials have been imprisoned.
The founder of modern China, Mao Zedong, banned fortune telling and superstition in puritan, communist China after the 1949 revolution, but the occult has made a comeback since the still officially atheist country embraced economic reforms and began opening up in the late 1970s.
In one of the most famous recent cases, China’s powerful former security chief Zhou Yongkang was jailed for life in part due to accusations he leaked undisclosed state secrets to a fortune teller and healer called Cao Yongzheng, known as the “Xinjiang sage” after the far western region where he grew up.
Reporting by Ben Blanchard; Editing by Darren Schuettler
Source: Reuters “Stick to Marx not ‘ghosts and spirits’, China warns party members”
Note: This is Reuters’ report I post here for readers’ information. It does not mean that I agree or disagree with the report’ views.
China’s Core System (4) (Parts (1), (2) and (3) are “The Conundrum of China’s Collective Leadership” dated January 28, “No 2nd Generation of CCP Collective Leadership in China” on January 29 and “Fight for the Position of the Core when There Was No Core” on February 22.)
How Jiang Zemin dealt with Qiao Shi and Li Peng’s challenges
Could Jiang hold a PSC meeting to have PSC members vote on his position as the core to have the final say? Jiang was not sure he had the majority votes as most likely the other PSC members wanted equal power so that each and every member was one of the first-ranking leaders. If there was a core that had final say, the core would be the first-ranking leader while all the other members would be second-ranking leaders. Who would cast his vote to support Jiang as the first-ranking core and thus reduce himself to second-ranking? Jiang certainly knew very clear that he could not rely on the collective leadership to vote for him to have the final say.
By that time Jiang had made great efforts to establish his powerbase and was quite successful though had not obtained dominant power. Without Deng, the core of the second generation of CCP leadership, Jiang was not even sure that he was strong enough to ensure that the new central committee to be elected a few months later in the 15th Congress would elect him into the new Politburo or the new Politburo would elect him into the new PSC if he would be elected into the Politburo.
Jiang was entrusted by Deng to carry on Deng’s reform. Deng gave him instruction to gain the power to have final say as the core. Deng set an example in person by his Southern Tour to show the power of the core in forcing all other officials to obey his order to carry on the reform in spite of their opposition to the reform. Jiang had been assigned by Deng to carry on Deng’s reform after Deng died; therefore, it is imperative for Jiang to gain the power as the core of leadership. Jiang realized the urgency for him to maintain his position as the core and overcome Qiao and Li’s challenges.
CCP Elder’s Power
Jiang knew that the election at CCP Congress was controlled by the remaining four of the eight powerful elders after the death of the major elders Deng, Chen Yun, Li Xiannian and Peng Zhen. Among the four, Bo Yibo was the most powerful as Bo was very close to Deng. According to Zhao Ziyang’s secret memoir, Deng entrusted Bo to make preparations for 13th and 14th CCP Congresses. Bo prepared for the congresses the lists of the members of central committee and Politburo and candidates for high official posts and submitted them to Deng for approval. As a result, Bo had great influence among Politburo and central committee members and high officials and could easily control the voting in the 15th Congress in 1997.
Jiang sought Bo’s help. With Bo’s help, he made Qiao retire at the 15th Congress and exploited the conflict between Li Peng and Qiao Shi as Qiao Shi said that the State Council under Li Peng’s control should report to Qiao. At that time, Qiao though ranked the third below Li was popular among reformists. According to China’s constitution, Li though ranked the second above Qiao was to be appointed as the premier by the NPC controlled by Qiao. If Qiao had not contended for the position to be the core, Li would have had to contend with Jiang only. Now Li had to deal with Qiao in addition to Jiang in order to become the core. That was too much for him.
By that time, Li has served two terms as premier and had to resign from the post of premier. Jiang cleverly offered Li Qiao’s post. Li, though could not become the core, would rank nominally higher than premier and could appoint the premier. That was at least a promotion. Jiang had thus won over Li and along with Li’s protégés in the State Council and the conservatives behind Li.
Qiao had been honest and upright all his life so that it was not likely that he had the ambition to become the core. Perhaps, he simply wanted the NPC to constraint Jiang Zemin and avoid the repetition of an autocracy like Mao’s.
Anyway, Qiao’s democratic idea that regarded the NPC instead of the Party as the only power centre may weaken CCP’s political power. He certainly could not get powerful elders’ support in his power struggle with Jiang. However, when he chaired the NPC, the NPC acted less like a rubber stamp. Since his retirement, no NPC chairman has ever challenged the Party’s leadership again and the NPC has fully resumed its role as a rubber stamp.
No Collective Leadership when Jiang Zemin Was the Core
Jiang learnt from Deng’s example and has obtained top power through the help of powerful elders, especially Bo Xilai’s father Bo Yibo. With the help of Zhu Rongji, he obtained the prestige in CCP by his successful reform to make China’s loss-making State-owned enterprises profitable. By the time he retired from PSC, he had soundly established his powerbase. Hu Jintao was not his but his mentor Deng Xiaoping’s choice as his successor. Out of his gratitude and respect for Deng his mentor, Jiang had to appoint and groom Hu Jintao as his successor. However, Jiang’s first priority was to carry on Deng’s reform and opening-up. As Hu has not established his powerbase to succeed Jiang as the core, Jiang had to maintain his control to keep on the reform.
He appointed his protégés into PSC to control PSC majority and thus controlled PSC’s decision making. As a result, PSC made decision by the majority controlled by Jiang. That gave the false impression that there was collective leadership in PSC, but in reality, the decisions had been made in accordance with Jiang’s instructions to the PSC members controlled by Jiang.
At first, Deng Xiaoping wanted to establish a system of collective leadership in the Party, but after Tiananmen Protests, he changed his mind and wanted the collective leadership to have a core. The idea about a core is perhaps realistic for the Party because for thousands of years, China has to have a highly centralized power center.
Article by Chan Kai Yee
China Party Congress 2017
Michael Martina, Philip Wen October 24, 2017
BEIJING (Reuters) – China’s ruling Communist Party enshrined President Xi Jinping’s political thought into its constitution on Tuesday, putting him in the same company as the founder of modern China, Mao Zedong, and cementing his power ahead of a second five-year term.
A key Xi ally, top corruption fighter Wang Qishan, will not be on the new Politburo Standing Committee, the apex of power in China, to be revealed on Wednesday as he was not among those named on Tuesday to the 204-member Central Committee.
Whether or not the powerful Wang would remain on the Standing Committee, which currently has seven members, despite being beyond the customary retirement age of 69, had been among the key questions to be answered at the week-long party congress, which ended on Tuesday. Wang could still assume another senior role over the next few months.
As expected, the party unanimously passed an amendment to include “Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era” as one of its guiding principles.
The party will announce its new Standing Committee, headed by Xi, at around midday (0400 GMT) on Wednesday, culminating a twice-a-decade leadership reshuffle.
As expected, the amended constitution affirmed that Xi’s signature fight against corruption, which has ensnared more than 1.3 million officials, will continue.
Unexpectedly, Xi’s “Belt and Road” initiative, an ambitious program to build infrastructure linking China with its neighbors and beyond, was also included in the party constitution.
Also included was a commitment to supply-side industrial reforms, and giving play to the “decisive role” of market forces in resource allocation, a commitment Xi had made early in his first terms that many investors say he has failed to deliver on.
“The party exercises overall leadership over all areas of endeavor in every part of the country,” the party said in a statement reflecting Xi’s ongoing efforts to strengthen the party and its place in contemporary Chinese society.
If no clear successor to Xi is named to the new Politburo Standing Committee, it will further fuel speculation that Xi may look to retain power beyond the customary second five-year term.
“This is about further erasing any distinction between Xi Jinping and the party,” said Jude Blanchette, who studies the party at The Conference Board’s China Center for Economics and Business in Beijing, referring to Xi’s thought getting into the constitution.
“Add on to this having supply-side structural reform and One Belt One Road written into this, which were Xi’s signature policies, this makes questioning or non-compliance with those tantamount to betrayal of the party.”
THE MARKET AND THE PARTY
Chinese President Xi Jinping raises his hand as he takes a vote at the closing session of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China at the Great Hall of the People, in Beijing, China October 24, 2017.REUTERS/Jason Lee
Xu Hongcai, deputy chief economist at the China Centre for International Economic Exchanges, a Beijing think-tank, said party control was needed to push through the market reforms key to restructuring the world’s second-largest economy.
“To build a market economic system in such a big country, it’s impossible without the leadership of the party,” he said.
Others have argued that the two are contradictory.
“When you put ‘supply-side reform’ and ‘market playing a decisive role’ in the same document, then that just shows they have to almost choose one,” said Alex Wolf, Senior Emerging Markets Economist with Aberdeen Standard Investments in Hong Kong.
China’s blue-chip shares climbed to a 26-month high on Tuesday, led by infrastructure and property stocks, as Xi wrapped up a congress that began with his three-and-a half hour speech envisioning a more prosperous, confident China. The yuan strengthened against the dollar.
Xi rapidly consolidated power after assuming party leadership in late 2012 and then the presidency the next year. The party gave Xi the title of “core” leader a year ago, a significant strengthening of his position.
Whether Xi was able to have his name “crowned” in the party constitution had been seen as a key measure of his power, elevating him to a level of previous leaders exemplified by Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory.
No other leader since Mao has had an eponymous ideology included in the document while in office. Deng’s name was added after his death in 1997.
A list of 133 committee members for the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection released on Tuesday included Zhao Leji, who heads the party’s Organisation Department, a strong sign that he will take over from Wang as anti-corruption chief.
China’s top banking regulator, Guo Shuqing, and veteran banker Jiang Chaoliang, front runners to succeed Zhou Xiaochuan as central bank governor, both made it to the Central Committee.
The constitutional amendment, along with Xi’s work report and a work report of the graft watchdog to the congress, were passed by a show of hands.
When Xi next asked for any “no” votes or abstentions for the amendment or two work reports, the sound of “none” echoed throughout the chamber, as officials shouted out from different sides of the hall.
Reporting by Michael Martina and Philip Wen; Additional reporting by Stella Qiu, Christian Shepherd, Elias Glenn and Kevin Yao; Writing by Ben Blanchard; Editing by Neil Fullick, Paul Tait and Tony Munroe
Source: Reuters “China enshrines ‘Xi Jinping Thought’, key Xi ally to step down”
Note: This is Reuters’ report I post here for readers’ information. It does not mean that I agree or disagree with the report’ views.
CCP’s New Guiding Ideology—Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New EraPosted: October 20, 2017
CCP (Chinese Communist Party) will amend its constitution to add Xi Jinping Though on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era to CCP’s list of guiding ideologies: Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, Three Represents and the Scientific Outlook on Development.
The Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era appears repeatedly in Xi Jinping’s three and a half hours’ speech but without his name Xi Jinping placed before it.
In CCTV’s prime time news the day before yesterday on Xi attending a panel discussion of Xi’s speech, the report shows Xi talking about the new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics but does not mention the thought. It also shows others speaking about their impression of Xi’s speech.
However, the reports on other members of CCP Politburo Standing Committee members Zhang Dejiang, Yu Zhengsheng and Liu Yunshan attending panel discussions the day before yesterday and Li Keqiang, Wang Qishan and Zhang Gaoli, yesterday only provide those members speeches about Xi’s speech especially the greatness of the thought without providing what any others spoke. In addition, all of them put Xi Jinping before “Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era” to indicate such thought is Xi Jinping’s.
The following are photos taken from CCTV prime time news footages of the six CCP Politburo Standing Committee members Li Keqiang, Zhang Dejiang, Yu Zhengsheng, Liu Yunshan, Wang Qishan and Zhang Gaoli speaking at separate panel discussions on greatness of Xi Jinping Thought:
We have seen quite a few titles of Xi in Chinese official media: leader, commander, core, etc. but with Xi Jinping Thought, he will perhaps have the additional titles of helmsman and teacher. Whether there will be the adjective “great” before such titles I do not know, but I am certain the title of teacher fits him.
As for the title of helmsman, it was the title Lin Biao gave Mao. Lin was ignorant that in modern times, a ship is navigated by the captain and his top assistants instead of the helmsman, who but operates the helm at the captain’s order. Navigator must be a better title.
Comment by Chan Kai Yee on CCTV prime time news on CCP 19th Congress.