Further Reform of China’s Succession System
Hu Jintao’s failure has made CCP rethink about the succession system set up by Deng Xiaoping. The unwritten rule that limits top leader’s tenure results in retired leader Jiang Zemin remaining in control behind the scene, but the control was loose. As a result, due to lack of executive talents and strength, Jiang Zemin’s successor Hu Jintao failed to run the country satisfactory and left behind lots of problems after Hu’s retirement.
It was not because Hu was not talented or lacked moral integrity but due to the rarity of gifted leader who is able to discover talents with moral integrity and put them in good use. Hu first of all lacks the ability to discover talents and place them in proper posts to carry out his Scientific Outlook on Development so that the officials and SOE executives Hu chose from his CYL powerbase have borrowed heavily for investment in excessive production capacity in order to achieve high economic growth. That has given rise to heavy debts, excessive capacity and serious pollution very hard for his successor Xi Jinping to overcome.
Moreover, the rampant corruption due to his lack of control has brought CCP to the edge of collapse.
A core Leader Shall Not Retire until Succession Is Ensured
If Jiang and Zhu Rongji had served one more term and tested Hu in that term, they might have found Hu’s incompetence and had Xi Jinping replace Hu as Jiang’s successor.
Jiang personally experienced the difficulties in setting up his powerbase as the core of CPC leadership and the challenges of his status as the core by Qiao Shi and Li Peng.
Bo Xilai’ efforts in obtaining popularity by his campaign against organized crimes and singing read campaign obviously aimed at depriving Xi Jinping’s chance of succession to Jiang Zemin as the core of CCP leadership.
The difficulties Jiang and Xi encountered in their succession to the core prove the necessity for a retiring core to stay longer in order to help his successor establish powerbase.
There Shall Be No Official’s Age, Term Limits to Avoid Waste of Talent
An official who has proved his talents and moral integrity is a country’s precious asset. His county shall cherish his talents and keep him in service as long as he remains healthy, competent and willing to work for his country. It is stupid to force him to retire and thus waste his talents.
The limits are quite exceptional in China as in China’s thousands years of history, there had never been such limits to officials’ age or tenure. There are no such limit in Western democracies or the Soviet Union and its satellite countries.
Since Liu Bang, the founding emperor of Han Dynasty, accepted Lu Jia’s advice to “get down his horse to rule the empire”, China mainly employed educated civilian officials to govern the country. All founding emperors of later dynasties followed Liu Bang’s example. Mao was the only exception. In Mao Era Official were appointed based on their merits in war. Those officials were mostly not adequately educated or competent and became obstacles to Deng’s modernization of China. Deng had to remove them but they ware powerful vest interests difficult to remove. Deng set age and term limit to persuad them to retire as he needed young and well educated officials for China’s modernization.
There is no need to remove uneducated officials by limiting officials’age and tenure; therefore, sooner or later such limits will be removed.
Restoration of China’s Old Yao Shun System of Succession
According to Chinese classic “The Book of History”, more than 4,000 years ago in Yao and Shun Times, China’s top leader Emperor Yao chose Shun and appointed him high official position to test him. Having found Shun competent, Yao had Shun succeed him. Shun did the same to Yu and had Yu succeed him.
Shun was chosen as candidate of succession due to his moral integrity but was finally chosen when he had proved competent in performing the official duties assigned to him by Emperor Yao.
Shun Chose Yu as Yu worked hard for 13 years and finally succeeded in harnessing the river and putting an end to serious flooding. Yu was so dedicated to his work of flood relief that in the 13 years he was doing the job, he passed his home three times without entering his home to meet his family. Yu was certainly chosen due to his talents and moral integrity.
Xi’s reform of CCP succession system by removal of the term limit of Chinese presidency in effect makes CCP’s system of succession to core similar to that in China’s Yao and Shun Times that was highly praised by Confucius.
Article by Chan Kai Yee
China’s Core System (1)
Collective Leadership to Avoid Reemergence of Mao-style Autocracy
Deng Xiaoping had to find a way to avoid the reemergence of Mao-style autocracy that is equivalent to tyranny. He invented a system of collective leadership, in which a leader had limited tenure and could not be reelected when he had reached a certain age. In this system, there will not be much succession problem. However, this system does not work in China. A newly elected collective leadership had no real power while the retired elders remained powerful. As a result Chinese politics were dominated by retired elders behind the scene.
No Collective Leadership in Chinese History
Judging by China’s thousands-year long history, collective leadership is something unprecedented as there had never been collective leadership in China. CCP has given China a formal name the People’s Republic of China (中華人民共和國 in Chinese), in which the term “republic” has come from abroad as there has never been a republic in China, not even in a separate state when China was split. The term republic in Chinese is “共和国 (gonghe guo)”in which “國 (guo)” means country. The term “共和 (gonghe)” that describes “guo” the country is taken from a 14-year period called “Gonghe Administration” in Zhou Dynasty beginning from (841 or 842 BC) when King Li of Zhou, a tyrant, was driven away so that the Kingdom of Zhou was jointly run by Duke Ding of Zhou and Duke Mu of Zhao for 14 years until King Li’s son had grown up to succeed to King Li.
Strictly speaking a group of two people cannot be regarded as a collective leadership. At best the kingdom was run by an oligarchy instead of a collective leadership at that time.
However, that was only the opinion of one major group of Chinese historians. There was another major group of Chinese historians who disagree with the first group and hold that in the 14 years China was run by Duke Wu of Wei called “共伯和 (Gongbohe)” shortened as “共和 (Gonghe)”. That was why the 14 years when Duke Wu of Wei was in charge of the kingdom on behalf of King Li’s successor was called “Gonghe Administration”. If that group’s view is correct, there was no oligarchy at that time let alone collective leadership.
In the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods (770 BC to 221 BC), the kings of the Zhou Dynasty was weak, China was split into lots of states, each of which was run by a sovereign, i.e. was an autocracy. There was no collective leadership in any of the states.
China’s Centralism since Qin Dynasty (221BC to 207 BC)
When Emperor Shihuang of Qin had conquered all other states and unified China, he established his centralized rule to avoid China being split into various states again. Since his reign, there was always centralized autocracy in China. Even in the few periods when China was again split into a few states, there was no collective leadership but centralized autocracy in each state without exception.
That was the situation in empires and kingdoms before the establishment of a republic called the People’s Republic of China, a republic in name but an autocracy or several autocracies governed by warlords. After the establishment of PRC, there was at first the people’s democratic dictatorship but later changed into proletarian dictatorship without even the term “democratic”. Certainly, there was no democracy, but was there collective leadership?
No Collective Leadership in Mao Era
According to Deng’s description, in Mao era, there was collective leadership with Mao as the core that has the final say.
Mao made the decision of sending troops to Korea in spite of the opposition of all other members of the collective leadership. At that time, Mao indeed had the final say but was there collective leadership when the opinions of all other members of the collective leadership were disregarded?
Mao’s victory in the Korean War greatly enhanced his prestige and enabled him to severely denounce the members of the collective leadership under him who advocated not too fast but sure economic growth. His fierce attack of them silenced all oppositions so that he was able to madly pursue unrealistically high economic growth in his Great Leap Forward Campaign that resulted in his great famine that caused the death of starvation of millions of people. By that time there was no collective leadership at all.
Mao then retired to the second line and let Liu Shaoqi be the head of the group of collective leadership with Mao giving instructions to them behind the scene. When he found that the collective leadership disobeyed him, he launched the Cultural Revolution to seize power back from the collective leadership and persecuted almost all the members of the collective leadership. In the last decade of Mao’s rule, Mao carried out the Cultural Revolution as a tyrant with absolute power instead of the core of collective leadership.
To sum up, in Mao era, there was no collective leadership but the absolute monarchy of Mao, though Mao was regarded by Deng as the core of a collective leadership,
What about CCP’s second collective leadership with Deng as its core?
We will discuss in my post tomorrow.
Article by Chan Kai Yee
At the end of the preface to the first edition of my book Tiananmen’s Tremendous Achievement, I tell readers my intention in writing the book:
As the Party’s official historical records tend to omit the evils done by Mao and his lackeys and the top-level power struggles in the Party in order to beautify the Party and maintain the legitimacy of its monopoly of power, if no one writes this part of the history, this important part of Chinese history will be missing and people will not be able to really understand what has happened in China over the past few decades or see what will happen in the future from a Chinese perspective.
Especially, Tiananmen butchers will succeed in justifying the massacre and Tiananmen heroes would shed their blood and suffered imprisonment and other persecution in vain if their great achievements remain unknown. Therefore, having this book written and published becomes my historical mission and destiny.
True enough Reuters says in its report today, “China’s ruling Communist Party will likely never open all the files on its recent painful past, including the Cultural Revolution and Great Leap Forward, and sees no need to reassess those periods, a senior party historian said”.
Knowing that well, I wrote quite a lot about Mao era, especially the Cultural Revolution and Great Leap Forward. It is a pity that my book does not sell and no libraries in the West have even a copy of my book.
I hope other people to write their sufferings in Mao era, but few were willing as recalling the terrible past is traumatic. I have experienced the trauma when I write my book, but have overcome it as we must let our posterity know the truth.
Due to fear of Chinese authorities’ and leftists’ retaliation, I dare not publish the Chinese version of my book. Now it is time for me to have the courage to publish the Chinese version of my book for the benefits of our posterity.
The following is the full text of Reuter’s report:
China likely will never open all files on painful past, official says
China’s ruling Communist Party will likely never open all the files on its recent painful past, including the Cultural Revolution and Great Leap Forward, and sees no need to reassess those periods, a senior party historian said on Monday.
The 1958-1961 Great Leap Forward, when millions starved to death in Mao Zedong’s botched industrialization campaign, and the 1966-1976 Cultural Revolution are two of modern China’s most sensitive historical events.
During the Cultural Revolution, children turned on parents and students on teachers after Mao declared class war, convulsing the country in chaos and violence.
While recent years have seen increased public discussion of both events, certain topics remain almost completely off limits, including the death of Lin Biao, once handpicked to succeed Mao but killed in a mysterious plane crash in 1971 while fleeing China having been accused of plotting a coup.
Xie Chuntao, Director of the Party History Teaching and Research Department of the Party School, which trains rising officials, said the party had reflected deeply on its mistakes.
But former paramount leader Deng Xiaoping’s conclusion that Mao made mistakes remains the correct way to broadly view the period, Xie told a news conference.
“I believe this summation is still, to this day, authoritative and has withstood the test of time,” he said, in rare public comments by a party official on the country’s fractious communist past.
The mistakes of the party’s past are still being learned today by its members, and he himself teaches his students about the Great Leap Forward, Xie added.
“Everyone has reached a consensus that the mistakes of the past will certainly not be repeated today or in the future.”
Only a “small number” of the party’s historical files were still sealed, he said.
“Some involve the state’s core interests, and some are not convenient to be released,” Xie added.
“From a historical research it is to be hoped that it would be best if they are all opened. But I fear this cannot happen, and may never happen.”
Demand for Prostitutes
On the demand side, due to the long period of poor economy, a large number of youth in community grew older than 25 but remained unemployed. They were then called idle laborers and could find temporary jobs. When they could not find temporary jobs, quite a few of them became peddlers. In addition, quite a few unemployed young men got money through robbery and theft. It was difficult for those who did not have stable permanent jobs to find girlfriends, let alone wives because they did not have stable income, but there was the philosophy to spend all their money to enjoy their lives. Better than being taken away in house raids they thought. They spent their money freely to have sex with prostitutes. As there was such a demand, prostitution thrived and some secondary school girls joined the trade to have sex with the men they liked and make some quick money.
There was also the demand arising from sex imbalance in married couples. For example, the older colleague mentioned above che lasei (chased lustful girls) to satisfy his excessive sexual desire that his wife could not satisfy. Extramarital sex might resolve the problem, but at that time, it was a sin or even a crime. However, judging by the description in Chapter 2 of the large number of condoms flowing out of the cesspool of the office building of the workers propaganda team in a university, the workers did have extramarital sex to satisfy their excessive sexual desire when there were conditions to do so. But there was the risk of breaking their marriage. Che lasei or visiting prostitutes was probably a better way to resolve that problem as long as the workers can afford it.
Besides, it was a period of time when CCP wanted people to sacrifice themselves for CCP but seldom considered that CCP should do something to satisfy people’s needs and resolve their problems. As CCP assigned jobs to people in disregard of their need to be with their families, the problem of separation between husband and wife was common. A man had to wait for almost a year and then took his annual 22-day home visit leave to have sex with his wife. What can a man do in such a long period without sex? Visiting a prostitute seemed to be the only way out. Nearly all the above demand was created by CCP. CCP, especially its autocratic leader Mao, should be blamed if anyone should be blamed for the emergence of prostitution during the Cultural Revolution.
The reform and opening-up have made most people better off but there were a small number of people who have not been benefited much mostly because they have not received much education. Those people are nostalgic for the era before the reform. They would like to say that there was no prostitution and few crimes then.
From Sep 25 1952 to 1958, there was indeed no prostitute in Shanghai. Crime rate was low in the 1950s, but after the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, it kept shooting up. Militiamen often carried out large-scale campaigns to round up criminals in Shanghai. Those campaigns were called typhoons. When militiamen caught a girl for the offence of premarital sex, they did not look into the issue of whether she was paid for the sex. Before the Cultural Revolution, people were sent to prison for premarital sex, but as the focus of punishing crimes had switched to political offences since the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, such offenders were treated leniently. They were imprisoned in factories to attend study classes for one or two months.
In their study classes, they did not study Mao’s works or make self-criticism like what I did when I was involved by my father and friend. They were imprisoned in a factory and forced to do heavy and dirty manual jobs in the factory. Compared with reform or education through labor in the past, this punishment was quite lenient. So were youngsters punished when they had committed other crimes not political in nature such as robbery, gambling and gang fights. Crime rate was excessive at that time. One autumn evening in 1975, I left home at 7:00 pm on bicycle to visit my relatives in a downtown area. It was only a 15-minute ride, but I saw six robberies of handbags and bicycles on my way. People often judge crime situation by crime rate. Crime rate is useless in judging the crime situation in China then. At that time, as it was no use to report such crimes, few such crimes were reported; therefore, the statistics are useless.
The above is the excerpt of my book Tiananmen’s Tremendous Achievements Expanded Second Edition following yesterday’s excerpt “Prostitution in China during Cultural Revolution (Part 1)”. My five posts from “Dating in China during the Cultural Revolution” on June 25 to today are the full text of Chapter 23 “From Che Lasei to Prostitution—Illicit Prostitution during the Cultural Revolution” of my book.
A Young Prostitute Aged 17
In late 1972, some people who had committed serious political mistakes like me, some gangsters and I were assigned tasks to build air-raid shelters. Among them were Fourth (meaning the 4th son) and Wu who were regarded as gangsters for their roles in gang fights. We were paid 0.60 yuan (US$0.27 at the official rate then) per day. Some housewives and unemployed people later joined us.
Those with records of political mistakes and gang activities were assigned the heaviest tasks of pushing the giant shovel of a stationary earth scraper. There were two shifts of four people each. Fourth, Wu, Zhang, another man with political mistake, and I worked on the same shift. As there was room only for two to push the shovel, we worked by turn in teams of two, one of which consisted of Fourth and Wu while the other, Zhang and me.
It was a heavy and dangerous job. Seeing that Zhang and I were older and weaker, both being scholars, Fourth and Wu often would not let Zhang and me take our turn and worked continuously. They did most of the work. I realized that they were in fact good boys and that they took part in gang fights because they had too much energy and wanted excitement. We soon became good friends.
In October 1974, Fourth was admitted into a production team under the sub-district government (the change was only in status and pay as he remained working at the air-raid shelter site) and began to be paid a wage higher than the 0.60 yuan subsidy. He invited Wu, me and his eight other friends to his place to celebrate. Like him and Wu, his eight friends were young and had received only three to five years of schooling before school education was suspended during the Cultural Revolution.
We drank spirits and most of his friends soon were drunk and made quite some noises. A neighbor came to see what happened. Fourth’s friend greeted her and asked her, “Fangfang, how is business?”
She said, “So, so.”
“Ha, ha,” one of Fourth’s friends said, “Money floods in when you receive guests. So, so is quite good.”
I looked at the neighbor. She was a young girl quite good looking. “Receiving guests” was an insidious old expression for “providing services for a whoremaster”, but she was not upset nor blushed.
She retorted, “What I make is nothing compared with what you make in one robbery.” Hearing that, Fourth’s friends all laughed heartily.
When Fangfang left, Fourth’s friends talked about their experience with prostitutes. They said that though they have had experience with some girls, Fangfang seemed to be the best. She only slept with the customers she liked and would not drive her customer away as soon as it was over. She was not so snobbish like the others perhaps because she was very young, only 17.
Some of Fourth’s friends then told a story about Moli, another girl. One day someone recommended her brother to her. Moli did not know that her brother was used to visit prostitutes while her brother did not know Moli was doing that business. At that time, their secret was kept quite well. Moli and her brother were very much embarrassed when they met.
Trend to Describe Mao’s China as Clean compared with the Epoch of Reform
In China now, problems such as prostitution and crimes are often blamed as the results of spiritual pollution and capitalist liberalization due to Western influence. The orthodox view is that since the opening-up, many of decadent capitalist things have come in to corrupt Chinese society. In fact, prostitution and crimes were not the results of the reform and opening-up but the results of Mao’s tyranny and Cultural Revolution.
As Mao often interfered with other officials’ efforts to improve the economy, since 1959, the economy was always poor under his rule and there were serious shortage of job opportunities. Lots of senior and junior secondary school graduates were unemployed, but they were called youth in community instead of unemployed youngsters.
The government used lies and political pressure to force Shanghai youngsters to go to Xinjiang, a remote desert area. In all about 100,000 Shanghai youngsters went there before the Cultural Revolution. Then Mao sent red guards to the countryside and more than 700,000 Shanghai youngsters went there.
Supply of Illicit Prostitutes
When Shanghai youngsters were in Xinjiang, they found life there so miserable that as soon as there was chaos there during the Cultural Revolution, most of them came back. In addition, lots of red guards sent by Mao to poor rural areas also came back later. They had to depend on their parents. However, as their residence registration had been transferred to rural areas, they had no food rations. Some of them had to buy expensive food in the black market. They were in great trouble when their parents were sick or died. Some of them became illicit prostitutes for survival. Their misfortune will be described later in the next chapter. That was one of the major sources of supply of prostitutes. This provided prostitutes of mixed quality because a girl was forced into prostitution by poverty. I refer to them as forced prostitutes
The other source provided quality prostitutes independent, pretty and lovely. They were from among the large number of unemployed young people including the unemployed junior and senior school graduates before the Cultural Revolution and the unemployed former red guards who did not go to countryside due to “sickness” and who could not stand the hardship in the Countryside and returned to Shanghai. They had no prospects of employment or marriage but still wanted to enjoy life. As at that time there was no recreation, dating and later sex was a major source of pleasure for them.
Due to the communist puritanical education since the Anti-Rightist Movement, those youngsters were not very clear about love. The red guards among them especially were poorly educated. The influence of old convention was relatively weak. As rebels, they disregarded the traditional values of virginity and bodily pleasures prevailed. Moreover, quite a few young girls knew that Jiang Qing had slept with lots of men but the great leader Mao still married her and assigned her to high official post. That means that sleeping with many men is all right.
At first, most of the prostitutes had had experience of sex before they became prostitutes. The boys and girls had sex first often due to their sexual desire. However, the girls were often indignant that the boys wanted dominance. A boy often thought that once a girl had lost her virginity to him, she belonged to him. Sometimes, a boy even threatened his girl that if she did not obey him, he would make public the girl’s loss of virginity and ruin her reputation. However, those girls revolted against the convention of virginity. They became lasei to enjoy the funs of dating and wanted to use their pretty face and lovely body to make men crazy about them. Gradually, a relationship of prostitution developed from the relations between them and their customers. Later, finding that it was an easy way to make money, some secondary school girls joined those girls. I call those prostitutes voluntary prostitutes.
The above is the except of my book Tiananmen’s Tremendous Achievements following yesterday’s excerpt “Lasei’s Escort Services during Cultural Revolution”
What Service a Lasei Provided and What She Got in Return?
I said at the beginning of this chapter that when the young worker told me they greeted the girls in order to find girlfriends, an older colleague said that they were not looking for girlfriends but were che lasei (chasing lustful girls).
The young worker said that those were girls with proper jobs. A lasei was a girl without a proper job who dated for fun. If a girl had no proper job, she could not date for marriage because all the young workers then only earned a monthly wage of 36 yuan (US$16 according to the official rate then) and had no prospects of wage increase. None of them could afford an unemployed wife. That was entirely different from the situation in the early 1950s. An apprentice usually earned a wage of at least 45 yuan when he finished his apprenticeship in three years. A starting wage of 70 yuan was quite common. There were often tests of his skill then and he would be promoted according to what test he had passed. For example, Zhou Wenhua, a grade 7.5 electrician in the chemical plant I once worked in, had his wage more than doubled in eight years. From 1957 to 1968, there had only been one wage increase of the minimum amount in wage scale and less than half of the workers got the increase. Therefore, when two workers with a monthly wage of 36 yuan each had married, they would be quite hard up if they had two children after their marriage.
The older colleague said, “However, the way you greeted the girls was precisely a che lasei way (a way to chase lustful girls).”
The young worker said, “Yes, but it was also a way to find girlfriends. You see, lasei’s group is never so big. Usually two to three girls. Four is the maximum. There is never a group of five. Those are girls not easy to satisfy. First, your looks and manners should be acceptable to them so that they will be willing to accompany you as if they were your girlfriends. You have to bring them to see what they want to see and play what they want to play. You have to treat them with a good dinner at an expensive restaurant. They are as expensive as a girlfriend when one dates her the first few times.”
“However, most of them are good looking and lovely,” said the older colleague.
“Certainly they are,” said the young worker. “Otherwise, who will spend money on them?”
“Don’t pretend that you are not interested in che lasei. I do not believe you,” said the older colleague.
“Yes, yes, I am interested. I am interested especially now when my girlfriend has left me. I want to find a new girlfriend, but if I cannot find one, I will date a lasei, but it is expensive.”
“But you get your money’s worth,” said the older colleague.
“I know what you mean. Yes, I cannot even touch my girlfriend’s hand when I first date her, but I can touch any part of a lasei’s body when I first date her after we have had a good dinner. They are lustful girls. They like you to touch their private part and fondle their breasts. The most wonderful thing I want to do with a lasei is to thrust my hand into her blouse from back and then move to her breast and put my hand inside her bra to fondle her breast. She will like it too. It’s so exciting.”
“You are honest now. That is the way to enjoy a lasei,” said the older colleague.
“I did not know that at first,” the young worker said, “but a lasei who liked me told me to do that. She said she enjoyed it very much. However, you are not interested in that. You are married and can fondle your wife’s breasts at any time.”
“That’s different,” said the older colleague.
“How?” asked the young worker.
“A woman’s breasts are different when she has given birth to two children. My wife’s breasts are good. They are soft and big. However, a lasei’s are firm and more elastic like those of my wife’s before she gave birth to our first child. Anyway, my best day is to have a good dinner with a lasei and then bring her to a place without other people. I will kiss her and fondle her breasts. Then I will thrust my hand into her trousers to feel her private part and get my hand wet. Then I will go home and sleep with my wife.”
“You lecher,” said the young worker. “We will che lasei together next time.”
“That’s precisely what I want. With a young companion, I will be better acceptable because sometimes they think I am too old to date. Little brother, let me teach you something. This is a very important technique to enjoy and please a lasei. Have you ever thrust your hand into a lasei’s trousers to feel her private part?”
“No, I haven’t,” said the young worker. “Only outside her trousers.”
“You should. That was the best part of the game. You should thrust your hand in and feel the inside of her private part with your fingers gently while watching her face. She will become very much excited when you touch a certain point in it with your finger. At that moment, she looked the prettiest. Ah, you are not married. So you know nothing about that. When you sleep with your wife, sometimes, you do it with her and make her very much excited. She looks the prettiest at that time under you. My wife is never excited now. She says that I do it too many times. Twice a week is all right for her, but I want to do it twice a day and she has lost interest in it. Sometimes, she is so dry that I cannot go in. Try that with a lasei and see how wet hers is. Lasei are really lustful.”
At that time, workers’ interest in sex was quite strong. They often talked about it especially the older ones. Some of them had the experience of visiting prostitutes before their marriage before communists came to power and would like to give a description of their experience with prostitutes in the old days. It seemed that young workers liked to hear that very much. The sex industry would have prospered if it had been allowed to exist and people could afford it. However, a description of what happened with one’s wife like what the older colleague gave was rare at that time.
It seemed to me that lasei in Shanghai at that time were escort girls who provided limited sex services to their customers in exchange for good company, a good meal and some fun and sexual satisfaction. They escorted their customers but normally did not make love with their customers. They were different from the escort girls in Western countries.
When such girls’ sexual desire was roused by their partners, they would inevitably make love with their customers if there were conditions for that. For example, if after being fondled by a customer, a lasei liked her customer and wanted to make love with him and the customer had a place to go to do that, they would go there to satisfy their sexual desire. As those lasei were independent and wanted to have sexual pleasure, it was inevitable that some of them would become prostitutes.
When I was in the chemical plant, I sometimes heard the militiamen there say that they caught a few lewd girls who had slept with many men. Those girls were all released after attending the study classes there as such offenses were punished leniently then. No one looked into the question of whether the girls were paid for the sex or not. As lasei’s business prospered, everyone knew the term “lasei”. It was then used in a broader sense to denote a lustful girl no matter whether she escorted boys or not, but the meaning of “che lasei” remained until the term became obsolete after the emergence of widespread prostitution.
I mentioned in Chapter 2 that in 1972, my friend Lu Hongnian told me that there were some young prostitutes doing business through private recommendation and that he had been their customer. Due to the lenient policy and the supply and demand arising from the social changes, prostitution was common at that time.
The above is the except following yesterday’s excerpt “Illicit Sex Industry in Shanghai in Mao Era”.
Source: Chan Kai Yee “Tiananmen’s Tremendous Achievements”
The Emergence of Lasei and the Che Lasei Activities in Shanghai
A few weeks before I heard the greetings between the boys and girls mentioned above, my fiancée and I were dating in the streets in the evening. We saw a boy and a girl very intimate walking before us. The boy held the girl’s waist tight and they were so attracted to each other that they could not keep going straight forward, but were going in a slightly zigzag way, sometimes a little to the left and sometimes a little to the right. The children in the street said “che lasei” when they saw the couple. When they saw my fiancée and me, they said, “Wild pigeons.” That was the first time I heard the phrase “che lasei”.
I asked my fiancée what “che lasei” meant. She said that it was the first time she heard that phrase, but she knew what lasei meant. She said that a girl in her neighborhood was called lasei when she broke up with her boyfriend and began to date various different boys for fun. But my wife said that the girl was not to blame.
One day a boy from another area saw the girl and liked her. He asked a boy living in the neighborhood to introduce him to the girl. The next time this admirer of the girl came, he was surrounded by a few boys. One of them hit him in the nose, made it bleeding and said, “This is a lesson for you for wanting to date a girl who belongs to a boy here.”
The girls’ admirer apologized, saying, “I am sorry, I did not know that she had already had a boyfriend.”
“What will you do to show your remorse?” asked the group of boys.
The girl’s admirer spent about 10 yuan to buy two cartons of cigarettes and two bottles of wine as a token of his apology. When the group of boys including the girl’s boyfriend, were enjoying their trophies, the girl broke into the room.
She said with rage to her boyfriend, “Who says I belong to you. Why don’t I have the right to date that boy? He may be rich or have a good job to enable him to marry and support me. I gave my body to you because I loved you and pitied you. I knew we could not marry as we could not support ourselves. We may have to remain unemployed for a long time. It is too hard for you to wait for sex. I gave my body to you to ease your hardship. You think I am your property and can be used to make profit?”
Her boyfriend said, “No, I never think so.”
The girl said, “You never think so? You think I belong to you because I have lost my virginity to you. Virgin or not virgin, I am still so pretty. My body is still so attractive and still worth a thousand ounces of gold. In the past, I thought you were an honest man and loved you. Now, I know you are worthless. You are not educated and you have no job and no money. You have nothing. I have no job, but I still have my pretty face and lovely body. I’ll teach you a lesson. I’ll show you how many men I can make crazy about me.”
A boy lost all his dignity before his girlfriend because he did not have the opportunity to receive education and get a job due to Mao’s Great Leap Forwards or Cultural Revolution. Do you know that in Shanghai alone, there were a few hundred thousand such men in Shanghai at that time?
I asked my fiancée whether those words were what the girl really said. She said yes.
“Did she really not care that she had lost her virginity?” I asked.
“No, she did not. Who care about it now since it is known to everybody during this Cultural Revolution that our great leader Chairman Mao married Jiang Qing after she had slept with lots of men,” said my fiancée.
If people all over China changed their view on virginity due to the Cultural Revolution, it shall be regarded as a great achievement of the Cultural Revolution. However, judging by the general populace’s attitude towards first nights, they still had the prejudice against brides who were not virgins.
My fiancée said that the next day a messenger came for an appointment of gang fight between the girl’s ex-boyfriend’s gang and the girl’s admirer’s gang. The girl told the messenger to ask her admirer what he wanted, taking revenge or dating her. She said that she had already dumped her boyfriend and was free to date her admirer. If her admirer only wanted to date her, there was no need to fight. He only had to tell her when and where she was to meet him. However, she urged the messenger to tell her admirer that she was not a virgin. The girl dated her admirer and there was no gang fight. Since then, the girl dated quite a few boys and received quiet a few gifts from them.
I said that I now understood that che lasei meant dating a lasei. Later I learned from my friend that the word “che” is also originated from English. The English for it is “chase”. As lasei means a lustful girl, “che lasei” means chasing a lustful girl.
The above is the excert of the part of my book following the except in yesterday’s post “Dating in China during the Cultural Revolution”
Source: Chan Kai Yee “Tiananmen’s Tremendous Achievements”
Kissinger’s Ignorance about China — On his On China
China is a complicated large country with a long history and civilization entirely different from Western ones. Chinese leaders, especially communist ones, are usually profoundly shrewd and avoid being seen through by others. The top leading group, in particular, is a black box. Its operation is tightly kept
confidential. However, for an autocracy like China, one cannot understand it without understanding its leaders. No wonder Western China watchers are frustrated in understandingChina.
However, as a well-experienced and informed diplomat and politician who helped Nixon achieve rapprochement with China, Kissinger must be in a better position to see through Chinese leaders, since he has times and again had talks in private with all Chinese leaders from Mao till now. I, therefore, read through his book On China, in order to find some insight in Chinese leaders and the reality in China
behind the curtain of thorough confidentiality. However, I am greatly disappointed that Kissinger gives distorted images of and misinformation about China and Chinese leaders, especially Chinese madman Mao.
Having personally experienced Mao’s tyranny, my greatest worry concerning China is the potential emergence of another madman like Mao when China grows into a rival to America. The disaster that he may cause to Chinese and world people will be much more serious than Mao’s great famine and Cultural Revolution.
Kissinger, however, compared China’s rise now with that of Germany before World War I and believes if the state leaders then had known the consequence of the war, they would “have recoiled” from confrontation. So will China and America in the future, he concludes. Kissinger forgets World War II, which is much more relevant. Madmen Hitler and Tojo Hideki started the war because they were callous killers and their mad calculation made them believe they would win the war. Tojo was especially mad. He attacked America
when compared with the giant of US economy, Japan’s was a dwarf.
Like Hitler, Mao Was a Callous Killer
In a speech on August 10, 1959, Mao gave the reasons why there was no Hungarian Rebellion (referring to
the Hungarian Revolution in 1956) in China, saying that since the communist takeover “more than one million counterrevolutionaries have been killed. Hungary has not killed any counterrevolutionary. For the elimination of more than one million of the 600-odd million people, I think we shall shout hurrah for that.” The counterrevolutionaries referred to in his speech were mostly unarmed civilians put to death in peacetime. The terror lies in his pride and joy in the killing.
Mao’s Two Fits of Domestic Madness with Heavy Death Toll
Mao’s mad campaign the Great Leap Forward giving rise to a death toll of 20 to 40 million people is now
well-known the world over. Frank Dikötter gives an astonishing, riveting, magnificently detailed account of it in his book Mao’s Great Famine.
Mao’s second fit of domestic madness the Cultural Revolution is even more famous. It was at first hailed in America as a campaign with lofty ideal. There were no statistics of the death toll and the number of victims. People who personally experienced it like me know that the number was enormous. People outside China now know the evils of the campaign when the truth has come out, but Mao’s misunderstood image as an
idealist remains in the minds of quite a few people.
Mao’s Fits of International Madness
Mao told Soviet leader Khrushchev that he would fight a nuclear war to eliminate capitalism all over the world even if half of Chinese population–300 million then– died in the war. Taking into account of China’s poor economy and backward weapons then, Mao was much madder than Tojo Hideki. However, when I was studying in a university in Anhui, China in 1958, there was hot enthusiasm for communism among the students there. Some of my close classmates talked about Mao’s words and said in private (not openly to
please Party cadres) that they admired Mao that he represented Chinese people in saying that we Chinese were willing to make the greatest national sacrifice for communism. Mao was able to make quite a few Chinese people as mad as him because elements of Maoism are deeply rooted in China’s popular culture for infection of his madness. That is China’s most serious problem.
You cannot believe that unless you have personally experienced it. At the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, I was amazed to see students even those in prestigious universities turned into mad Red Guards overnight and later discipline-abiding workers turned into rebels promptly.
Kissinger mentions that twice Mao brought the world to the brink of nuclear war in the two Taiwan crises in the 1950s, but he admires Mao’s shelling “diplomacy” and regrets that Mao’s “brilliant achievements” were not “balanced against the global impact of the crisis”. He invented China’s ‘traditional” “empty city stratagem” to gloss over Mao’s repeated fits of madness.
Kissinger Ignores Mao’s Export of Revolution
He says, “Mao was too much of a realist, however, to pursue world revolution as a practical goal. As a result, the tangible impact of China on world revolution was largely ideological and consisted of intelligence support for local Communist parties.” He quoted what Mao said to Snow in 1965 to prove that.
Though a well-informed diplomat, he regards as not “tangible” all the following Mao’s enthusiastic world revolution activities that were reported by media then and have been revealed now by people personally involved, so that Kissinger omits all of them except item 1:
- Mao transferred 50,000 experienced troops with weapons to increase Kim Il-sung’s troops to
231,000 for invasion of South Korea and sent troops to fight against America to preserve North Korea’s communist regime.
- Mao trained and armed Vietnamese communists, sent lots of military advisers to help drive away France and establish communist North Vietnam, and provided aids worth billions of yuan to help them take over South Vietnam.
- Mao helped Khmer Rouge rise to power in Cambodia in 1975. Mao’s “ideal” of “purifying the society” inspired Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot, resulting in the Killing Fields. Kissinger omits that perhaps because Thomas Walkum said on Toronto Star on June 30, 1997, “Let’s try Kissinger along with Pol Pot,” and some Americans such as Professor Edward S. Herman held similar views.
- Mao provided substantial aids to communists and guerillas all over the world in spite of China’s
own economic difficulties.
Mao, an Idealist?
Throughout his book, Kissinger strives to sell Mao’s image as an idealist. His trickiest advertisement is that he says that of Mao’s four titles: the Great Teacher, Great Leader, Great Commander and Great Helmsman,
Mao told Kissinger Mao only wanted to keep the title of “Teacher” as if Mao was a loving teacher. Mao persecuted people but that was the punishment given by Mao the strict teacher for purifying his pupils, Kissinger hints.
However, Mao was not a loving but a cruel tyrannous teacher whose teachings you were not to trifle with. Non-acceptance of or doubting any of his teachings or instructions was a crime. One would be severely punished even if one revealed it in one’s diary. In 1970, Zhang Yihe, a common clerk then but a well-known writer now, wrote in her diary upon Mao’s promotion of his wife Jiang Qing the Chinese saying “When a man becomes immortal, even his hens and dogs become immortal, too”. She got a sentence of 20-year imprisonment for that. When I was in Shanghai then, persecution and imprisonment for dissent in people’s diaries were common phenomena.
Mao’s Cruel Persecution of Dissidents
People know well that in 1957 Mao coaxed intellectuals into criticizing the Party and then labeled 550,000 intellectuals as rightists to persecute in order to silence voice of opposition. However, they do not know
very clearly that more than 3 million people were persecuted as rightists in 1959 because they aired their opposition to Mao’s mad Great Leap Forward in order to prevent the disaster it would cause to China. They
failed to stop Mao’s madness and at least 20 million people died due to Mao’s madness. Red Guard’s and rebels’ cruel persecution of innocent people and Party and state cadres is well known now, but quite a few people believe that it was over by 1969 when lots of Red Guard had been sent to the countryside. In fact,
persecution did not stop.
In 1970, quite a few young dissidents including some Party members openly said that Mao’s Cultural Revolution deviated from Marxism after they had diligently studied Marxist classics. Mao carried out a nation-wide One Strike-Three Anti Campaign and according to official figure, by November 1970
arrested 280,000 dissidents labeled as “counterrevolutionaries”. Those young dissidents were brave and wanted an open debate with Mao, but Mao “purified the society” by cruel torture, imprisonment and execution.
Zhang Zhixin was a typical case. The tortures and death penalty she suffered and the cruelty of the Campaign can still be found on the Internet. My father was framed-up and arrested as a counterrevolutionary then. He told me that he heard noise of torture everyday when he was detained in a detention center inShanghai for more than one year.
It is very clear that Mao’s “ideal” was not to “purify the society” but to establish his absolute authority. However, a man cruelly realizing such an “ideal” is normally regarded as a tyrant instead of idealist.
America’s ignorance about China
As a brilliant diplomat, in writing his book, Kissinger certainly consulted lots of American China experts’ writings. The plenty misinformation about China and failure to give information about present-day China and its leaders and people in his book reflect their ignorance too. I have no intention to find faults, but have to point out some to rouse American people’s awareness because the misunderstanding resulting from such ignorance may have catastrophic consequence.
Kissinger makes much of Chinese fondness for playing wei qi to “explain the conceptual way the Chinese think about problems of peace and war and international order”. That is absurd as very few people have
shown much interest in national wei qi competition or even know how to play it. I am a wei qi enthusiast, but have found it very difficult to find people to play with in China from the time when I was young till now when I am 70. However, Chinese chess, a game similar to Western chess, is traditionally the most popular game. One can find people to play with everywhere in China even among illiterates.
Kissinger says that there were no official records of foreign envoys coming to Chinese court to engage in negotiations nor did Chinese emperor hold “summit meeting” with other heads of state but foreign envoys came to be transformed and heads of state came to present tribute to “recognize” Chinese emperor’s “overlordship”. In fact, there were negotiations for treaties by which China was humiliated and forced to give tribute of precious metal and silk to other states, for example, the “Chanyuan Treaty” in 1004 and the notorious “Shaoxing Peace Treaty” in 1141.
As for summit meeting, on pages 6018–6020 of the official history entitled The Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government, Emperor Taizong of Tang met King Jieli of Tujue (the Turkic Khanate) and concluded a treaty with him in 626. That was quite an interesting event as Emperor Taizong who was quite sure that he could defeat Tujue’s one million invading troops then, gave Jieli gold and silk in order to make Jieli arrogant and unprepared so that he could conquer Tujue later. Three years later, his troops conquered Tujue.
Emperor Taizong was the greatest emperor and his Reign of Zhenguan, most famous in Chinese history. Ignorance of him after reading Chinese history is like ignorance of Napoleon Bonaparte after reading French history.
America Not on Alert
American brilliant political scientist Samuel P. Huntington predicted in his well-known book Clash of
Civilizations possible clash between Islamic and Western civilizations but America was not on alert. It failed to make thorough investigations when traces of Islamic terrorist attack were found months before 9.11. That reminds me of Pearl Harbor.
Will Americafail to be on alert a third time when the scenario of the clash between American and Chinese civilizations described by Huntington in his book becomes a reality?
Kissinger begins his book by stressing China’s traditional cosmology with its emperor as the pinnacle of a universal political hierarchy and all other states’ rulers serving as vassals and says understanding China’s role now must begin “with this basic appreciation of the traditional context”. However he fails to mention that when China was strong, its emperors fought quite a few wars to subdue China’s neighbors. In addition, he glosses over Mao’s enthusiastic pursuit of leadership in world revolution, which was precisely a further development of that cosmology. He mentions two recent books advocating sinocentric cosmology, but despite their being bestsellers, he treats them lightly, saying they are criticized in the Chinese press. If Americans believe him, they will not be on alert.
Deep-rooted Maoism, Rich Soil for the Emergence of another Mao
To prevent Kissinger’s book from giving world people a false sense of security, I have to make people see the possibility of the emergence of another Mao. As a profound understanding of Chinese culture and political
system is indispensable for that, I have to give a short description and analysis though they are the topics for a special book.
If future Chinese leaders remain Confucianist-Marxist and pursue harmony in the world,China’s rise will be beneficial instead of troublesome to the world.
In his book, China’s singularity is a major topic, but Kissinger is ignorant about that. China’s singularity first of all lies in its always having a dominant ideology for 2,000 years. Its third and longest dominant ideology Confucianism was thoroughly denounced in the May Fourth Movement in 1919 and criticized along with Lin Biao when ignorant of that, Kissinger mentioned it to Zhou Enlai and got furious response.
During the Cultural Revolution, a new generation of talented intellectuals with moral integrity emerged and there was renaissance of Confucianism among them. Those in Shanghai joined Jiang Zemin’s Shanghai faction and served Jiang in carrying out a silent peaceful coup d’état they have planned for a long time, to substitute intellectuals’ dominance for uneducated workers’ and peasants’. Jiang’s Three Represents marks the success of the coup and develops Marxism to justify China’s pursuit of capitalism adjusted by Keynesian macroeconomic control.
Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao have added Confucianism to Jiang’s new Marxism and stressed harmony in order to overcome the conflict arising from the yawning rich-poor gap resulted from such capitalism. They are also trying to establish Mencius democracy of “putting people first”. However, their Confucianism-Marxism, though dominant at present, has a very short history and takes time to be so well established as to prevent the emergence of another Mao.
Another ideology, Maoism, the dominant ideology in Mao era, has its key elements such as egalitarianism, personality cult, sinocentric cosmology, enmity against intellectuals and cruelty in fighting for its goal deeply rooted in Chinese popular culture. Those elements prevailed in lots of peasants uprisings in Chinese history and in Mao’s mad pursuit of leadership in world revolution and Cultural Revolution.
According to a survey in 2008, in 40 cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Wuhan, families who had Mao’s statutes or portraits for worship accounted for 11.5% of the total number of families there, exceeding by far those who worshiped Buddha, God of Wealth or local god of the land.
Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought are in conflict with Confucianism-Marxism, but they remain guiding ideology in Party’s and state’s constitutions and Mao remains China’s great leader in spite of the criticism of his errors.
With such rich soil for Maoism, the emergence of another Mao is quite possible in the future.
China’s Political System and Art for Being an Emperor
China has a long history of autocracy. In China, there have never been any definition, codes or rules whatever about the power of a top leader whether he has the title of emperor or not. In fact, even if
there are some codes or rules, there is no institution or mechanism to enforce them. This makes a top leader’s position precarious.
In the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods (770–221 BC), it was quite common that the sovereign power in a state was usurped by a powerful courtier, resulting in the demise of the ruling family. Seeing that, Han Fei (281?–233 BC), a Legalist master, wrote his famous Legalist classic entitled Han Fei-tzu to teach sovereigns the strategy, tactics, tricks and intrigues to maintain a top leader’s position and authority. As such strategy etc. is vital for top leaders, it were later further developed and called the art for being an emperor (diwangshu in Chinese).
Han Fei taught sovereigns to control their subjects by law, hold their officials in awe, use power, tricks and intrigues to control them and award and punishment to make them perform their duties properly. In order to maintain the awe and play tricks, He gives the advice that a sovereign must keep a distance from everyone else including his family members, relatives and officials and trust no one. That is certainly not a good way and a sovereign will thus have no friends and lead a lonely life. The constant pressure, sense of insecurity
and loneliness may well drive a sovereign mad.
Qin Shihuang adopted Legalism as the dominant ideology and Han’s ways to maintain his iron rule. However, there is a great problem in Han’s art: When a sovereign dies, he has no close powerful courtiers to ensure smooth succession. That was precisely the case with Qin Shihuang. In his will he wanted Prince Fusu to succeed him, but his eunuch Zhao Gao and Prime Minister Li Si replaced it with a fabricated will to have a weak prince succeed him and Prince Fusu killed.
The failure of succession and people’s uprisings against the cruel Legalist rule caused Legalism to lose its dominance and be negated since the fall of Qin Dynasty. Around 134 BC, Emperor Wudi of Han substituted Confucianism for Taoism as the dominant ideology. All the later dynasties exploited Confucian stress on loyalty and filial duty to consolidate emperor’s position and ensure succession. In spite of that, usurp of emperor’s power or throne was still quite common in Chinese history. For example, Wang Mang (45 BC–23 AD), Dong Zhuo (?–192), Cao Cao (155–220), Sima Zhao (211–265), Liu Yu (363–422), Zhao Kuangyin (927–976), etc. usurped power or throne and those who usurped power not throne mostly passed the power to their sons and enabled them to usurp throne.
Through further development in more than two thousand years of political struggles, the art for being an emperor now consists of the art, strategy, tactics, techniques, tricks, intrigues, etc. to win the throne,
recruit talented assistants, create bondage with them, rule the empire satisfactorily, maintain the emperor’s position, ensure smooth succession, etc. Great emperors wisely applied the art in establishing their dynasties, making the empire prosperous and ensuring smooth succession. One of the most well-known examples was that of Liu Bei, the founding emperor of Shuhan Dynasty, characterized by, among other things, establishing close affectionate bondage with talented generals and officials, but tricks and intrigues are still indispensable in their political struggle. However, there is no special systematic book like Han Fei-tzu on later art. One has to find it in China’s long history. Liu Bei’s story can be found in the well-known fiction The Romance of Three Kingdoms, which has been satisfactorily translated into English.
As Confucianism had been thoroughly denounced since 1919, when Mao became the sovereign of the CCP’s autocracy, his position was as precarious as Qin Shihuang without Confucian loyalty to rely on. It is a pity that Mao adopted Han Fei-tzu’s instead of the later much better art for being an emperor to establish and maintain his absolute authority. That was why he rehabilitated Qin Shihuang who until then had been condemned for 2,000 years in Chinese history, and openly advocated Legalism in his later years. However, Khrushchev’s criticism of Stalin’s personality cult greatly threatened Mao’s authority. Mao faithfully abided by Han Fei-tzu’s principles and took preemptive actions to remove his close friends and chosen successors Liu Shaoqi and Lin Biao when he suspected that they had grown too powerful and might have usurped his power.
CCP’s Core System Facilitates Emergence of Mad Leaders
When Mao Dynasty ended and Mao’s successor was removed from power, Deng Xiaoping tried to set up a system of collective leadership to prevent the reemergence of Mao’s autocracy that had brought disasters to China, but that system did not work. Zhao Ziyang’s memoirs gives a vivid description that when Deng and other powerful elders had retired from the politburo, their successors in the politburo were top leaders only in name, but had no real power and became puppets of the elders.
Moreover, Deng found the collective leadership ineffective in adopting hard measures to suppress Tiananmen Protests and maintain the Party’s rule. It caused him to make the unpopular decision of the massacre himself. He realized that China’s political system since the communist takeover had been a core
system with a core having the absolute authority like the emperor in a feudal dynasty but without hereditary succession and believed that such a system should be maintained. That was why when he had promoted Jiang Zemin to succeed him as the core of the Party leadership, he exhorted Jiang, “When Mao was
alive, he had the final say and when I am alive, I have the final say. I will not rest at ease until the time when you have the final say.” Obviously, by “final say” Deng Xiaoping meant that the core should have
absolute authority like Mao and Deng.
According to Zhao’s memoirs, in making a major decision, Deng Xiaoping consulted with other elders when Zhao was in office. However, after the Tiananmen Massacre, Deng began to act as the core and heeded no other elders’ views. When all the elders and quite a large majority of officials became conservative after Tiananmen Massacre, Deng Xiaoping conducted his famous Southern Tour to reinvigorate the reform alone. All others had to obey his instruction and Deng Xiaoping typically played his role as the core who has the
power above all others and even above law and Party and state constitutions like Mao.
When Jiang Zemin has established his absolute authority as the core, the Party’s core system finally became mature.
In such a core system, in order to become the core and maintain the position as the core, one has to master and apply the art for being an emperor elaborated in Han Fei-tzu or Jiang Zemin’s art that is similar to Liu
Bei’s and Emperor Taizong’s, which is even more difficult as there is no special systematic book on it.
A madman will be much more interested in Han Fei’s art of tricks and intrigues than normal people. With tricks and intrigues, he has a better chance to gain the position of core. Therefore the probability that a future core applies Han Fei’s art must be greater than Jiang’s. With the rich soil for mad leader in China, by application of Han Fei’s art such a madman can easily become an absolute monarch and make China mad.
What is most worrisome is that in China’s core system, when the core is mad like Mao, no one can control or remove him!
Democracy, the Only Way Out
Only when there is real democracy in Chinacan the emergence of another Mao be prevented and can another Mao be timely removed if he does emerge. Therefore, only then can Chinese people have a bright future and China’s neighbors and America rest at ease at China’s rise.
However what can Western countries do? They certainly are unable to impose democracy on China as they are doing now on Libya. First, they have to reinvigorate their economy and improve their people’s living
standards. With examples of prosperity in their democracies, they can attract Chinese people to learn from their democracies.
Second, they shall keep on disseminating their ideal of democracy by every possible means among Chinese people. They shall continue to denounce China whenever it violates human rights. It seems not effective, but it indeed works. That was why those who persecuted dissidents recently ordered their victims not to contact foreign journalists.
On the contrary, in his book, Kissinger admonishes US current and future administrations to “substantially” balance “long-term moral convictions with case-to-case adaptations to requirements of national security”, i.e., in disseminating American values of democracy and human rights, they shall avoid offending China
or they shall even turn a blind eye to the emergence of another Mao in China in order to prevent confrontation and achieve “co-evolution”. By so doing, America will fail to be on alert again and may suffer a third time perhaps much more severely.
As a legal translator, I always follow development of Chinese politics and legal system closely especially when I worked as chief editor of a China law website last year. I find that there have been some memoirs and
fictions reflecting the evils of Mao era, but few books on contemporary China based on personal experience and profound knowledge of Chinese culture, history and classics to enable people to understand what contemporary China really is from Mao era till now.
Victims Do Not Want to Write about the Trauma They Have Experienced
However, those who suffered the unheard-of cruel persecution in Mao era do not want to recall their traumatic past due to the unbearable pain of such memory. Previously, I myself did not want to talk about my sufferings when I met old classmates and friends though what I suffered was nothing compared with other much more serious cases.
Moreover, serious books on the history will certainly expose the Party’s despicable past and will of course be banned in China.
However I often worry that those who experienced and witnessed Mao’s tyranny in their prime of life and know Chinese culture, history and classics well are all old like me. If we do not write down what we know now, there will be no records of that important part of Chinese history and people will not learn lessons from it. Therefore, I decided that I should exploit the freedom of expression in Hong Kong and the freedom of publication in the United States to write down and publish what I know. I hope that my writings will
inspire other people to do so too.
Having read Kissinger’s book, I realize the urgency of the job. As I am 70 now, I shall strive to write all I know before I die so that people both inside and outside China will fully know the truth and will not be affected by the misinformation provided by the Party’s misleading propaganda or by those who appear to be China experts but are really ignorant about China.
 True Records of Lushan Meeting by Li Rui, ISBN 978-962-257-661-2, p 336
 Zhao Ziyang: Captive Conversations by Zong Fengming, p 75
DOING JUSTICE TO TIANANMEN
While Amercia has had justice done by killing Osama bin Laden, justice has not yet been done to Tiananmen incident in China.
In order to do justice to that great event in Chinese history, the author wrote this book to reveal Tiananmen’s great achivements.
The Coup D’Etat in China to Substitute Intellectuals’ for Uneducated Workers’ Dominance in China
When intellectuals were despised and almost all intellectual activities forbidden, a new generation of talented scholars with moral integrity emerged. They secretly made preparations to seize political power in order to save the nation and get the human right and freedom to pursue their intellectual activities. I have quite a few friends of that generation and attended a secret meeting of them in Shanghai. I learned at the meeting that one of their ways was to join the Party, rise to the top and transform the Party. They studied hard Chinese classics and history to learn the strategy, tactics, tricks and intrigues of political struggle and all other kinds of knowledge and skill and called themselves Eclectics. The intellectuals I lived among who were persecuted during the Cultural Revolution also wanted to fight back when the Cultural Revolution was over. Even those intellectuals like Fang Lizhi who were originally engaged in science and technology and traditionally wanted to have nothing to do with politics, became political enthusiasts and spent most of their time in disseminating the idea of democracy among college students. There were campaigns for democracy one after another with Tiananmen as the climax.