The Diplomat says in its article “Why is China Developing a New J-11 Variant?” that China has developed a new variant of J-11 the J-11D “4++ generation” air superiority fighter superior to Russia’s Su-35 that China has imported.
According to the article, Su-35 was developed in 2000s with technologies developed in the 1990s while the J-11D as a later development with newer technology is considerably more sophisticated so that it will very likely surpass Su-35 in its combat performance.
J-11D integrates some of the most capable Russian military aviation technologies. It uses more composite materials for a stronger but lighter airframe. Its electronic warfare systems and sensors are the latest development comparable with J-20’s and more advanced than Su-35.
It has better situation awareness than Su-35 as it uses a miniaturized active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar better to detect at range than Su-35’s passive electronically scanned array radar. Moreover, the article says, “The J-11D could potentially integrate a Distributed Aperture System, a cutting edge technology currently deployed only by the J-20 and American F-35.”
In addition, some stealth technologies are adopted in J-11D, such as radar absorbent coatings to reduce its radar cross section.
J-11D uses WS-10A three dimensional thrust vectoring engines to make it highly maneuverable.
It carries China’s new PL-15 air-to-air missile with a 150km engagement range longer than the R-77 and extended range variants of the R-27 used by Su-35.
Compared with China’s new 5th-generation stealth fighter jet J-20, it can carry larger missiles with far wider range than those carried in J-20’s internal weapon bay such as the ship hunting YJ-12 and ramjet powered PL-21 “AWACS hunter”.
With comparable electronic warfare systems and sensors, and with some stealth technologies of its own, J-11D is an effective next generation complement to the J-20 for decades to come. Moreover, it is likely to be considerably cheaper to operate and easier to maintain.
As for whether J-11D is the best of its kind, the article says, “How the aircraft will compare to Boeing’s F-15X, an advanced “4++ generation” air superiority platform currently on order for the U.S. Air Force, which is in many ways conceptually similar to the J-11D, remains to be seen.”
Comment by Chan Kai Yee on The Doplomat’s article, full text of which can be viewed at https://thediplomat.com/2019/04/why-is-china-developing-a-new-j-11-variant/.
China has developed a new version of its H-6K strategic bomber capable of aerial refueling, which will extend its range from 1,900 to 3,000 miles through two refuelings. That will enable it to attack US military base at Guam with YJ-12 supersonic anti-ship missiles with a range of 250 miles and CJ-20 subsonic cruise missiles with a range of 1,500 miles.
Source: mil.huanqiu.com “China’s H-6K God of War bomber gets major upgrading” (summary by Chan Kai Yee based on the report in Chinese)
Andrew Tate, London and Neil Gibson, London – IHS Jane’s Defence Weekly
09 November 2016
The CM-302 missile exhibited at Airshow China 2016 is being marketed for export as “the world’s best anti-ship missile”, according to Chinese news media.
The missile’s manufacturer, state-owned China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC), reportedly justifies the claim on the grounds that the missile is supersonic throughout its flight, can be launched from air, land, and naval platforms, and used in a land attack role.
A report published by the China Daily newspaper also confirmed that the CM-302, which was allegedly one of the exhibits to have attracted the most enquiries at this year’s air show in Zhuhai, is closely related to the YJ-12 supersonic anti-ship missile (ASM), which is in service with China’s armed forces.
The report states that the CM-302 has a range of 280 km, a warhead of 250 kg, and a 90% probability of hitting its target. CASIC claims that the missile is effective against large warships, such as aircraft carriers and destroyers, with a single missile having the capacity to disable a 5,000-tonne warship.
While the news report provides few details about the CM-302’s propulsion and flight profile, it said that the missile sea-skims for most of the flight and manoeuvres during the terminal phase to defeat the defensive weapons of ships.
Previously published reports about the YJ-12 indicate that the ramjet-powered missile achieves a mid-course speed of Mach 1.5-2, accelerating to Mach 3 or higher during the terminal phase of the flight.
The missile is guided by satellite navigation – specifically by China’s BeiDou Navigation Satellite System – to a target location, which can be updated by data link. Terminal homing is driven by an active radar seeker.
Assuming the missile’s physical characteristics are similar to those of the YJ-12, the CM-302 is likely to be a large missile of around 7 m in length, 0.6 m diameter, and with an estimated weight of around 2,000-2,500 kg.
Source: IHS Jane’s 360 “China offers export version of YJ-12 supersonic anti-ship missile”
Note: This is IHS Jane’s 360’s article I post here for readers’ information. It does not mean that I agree or disagree with the article’s views.
China’s DF-21D and DF-26 anti-ship ballistic missiles have already been well-known. In my post “Volley of China’s DF-21D Missiles Kills US Aircraft Carrier at Very Low Cost” on June 6, I said China was able to launch a volley of at least 168 DF-21D missiles simultaneously from its six DF-21D rocket brigades to kill an entire US aircraft carrier battle group in no time.
In addition, the launch vehicles can be reloaded in hours for a second volley.
DF-26 is said to be more powerful, but there is no information about its number and the number of DF-26 China is able to launch in a volley.
According to Depth Column of mil.news.sina.com.cn, to ensure that no US warships can escape China’s annihilation counterattack, China has, in addition, developed three kinds of anti-ship cruise missiles that the US has no effective defense: YJ-12, YJ-18 and YJ-100.
YJ-12 weighs between 2-2.5 tons. It has a terminal speed of Mach 4.0 as it uses a scramjet engine. It has a range of 400 km. As it is carried by fighter jets, fighter/bombers and bombers such as Su-30MKK, J-16 and H-6G/K, the range of attack of YJ-18, including that of the warplane, can be 2,000 km and longer. Its high speed makes it difficult to intercept. One such heavy missile can kill one US Aegis destroyer while more than 2 can neutralize an aircraft carrier.
YJ-18 is another powerful anti-ship cruise missile that the US has no effective defense. It is but supersonic at its terminal stage but it flies with a zigzag trajectory difficult to intercept. It is mainly launched from the VSL of China’s Type 052D destroyers and 093A/B attack nuclear submarines.
According to mil.sohu.com, Britain’s Jane’s Defense Weekly says that the anti-radiation function of YJ-18 is so powerful that it destroys 60% of an Aegis warship’s electronic system even if it explodes 50 meters away from the warship.
Compared with YJ-12 and YJ-18, YJ-100 is not well-know as it is a new missile disclosed by foreign media not long ago. Its greatest advantage is its long range of 800 km for beyond visual range attack with a low trajectory. It is said to be used by China’s new large Type 055 destroyer.
According to mil.news.sina.com.cn, the simultaneous attack by two of the above five kinds of missile will be surely lethal.
Source: mil.news.sina.com.cn “Depth Column: The five Chinese Missiles that the West will have no effective defense for a decade” and mil.sohu.com “Foreign media regards YJ-18 as one of the best anti-ship cruise missiles, one of which can paralyze a US warship” (summary by Chan Kai Yee based on the reports in Chinese)
News.qq.com website quotes Russian Korolev Talk about Military Column First 267 as saying that in addition to Shangyou-2, YJ-62 long-range land-based, YJ-83 series of aircraft/ship-based, YJ-82 submarine-based, YJ-18 general-purpose two-speed, YJ-12 supersonic air-to-surface, YJ-9 light air-to-surface, and Russian-made KH-59 and submarine-launched Club anti-ship missiles in service, China has quite a few other missiles that have anti-ship functions.
According to a March 24 article on PLA Daily, in a live ammunition drill in 2015, the Shenyang, a 051C missile destroyer in North Sea Fleet hit a surface target with a Russian-made S-300MF surface-to-air missile.
The Shenyang has 6 vertical launch systems with 8 units each for its 48 48N6 missiles with 150 km range. Each missile is 7.5 meters long and 0.5 meter in diameter and weighs 1,800 kg. Its warhead weighs 150 kg and is guided by a semi-automatic TVM guide system.
Usually an anti-ship missile has a semi-armor piercing warhead but an anti-aircraft missile has no such warhead. It hits an aircraft with the shreds of its explosion. Can such warhead be effective in destroying a warship? The Forum says that the warhead will cause serious damage if it explodes close above the deck of a warship.
The S-300 missile is guided by the radar on the destroyer, which has only a range of 35 km due to the curving surface of the earth. That limits the range of S-300. However China’s sea-version HQ-9 long-range air defense missile finds and tracks its targets with its own radar and thus has an effective of range of 150 km in hitting a warship.
Moreover, China’s ship-based Yu-8 anti-submarine missile and aircraft-based KH-31, KH-59, YJ-63 and YJ-88 air-to-ground missile also have anti-ship function.
Source: news.qq.com “In addition to S300, Chinese navy has a lot of concurrent anti-ship weapons” (summary by Chan Kai Yee based on the report in Chinese)
China’s Huanqiu.com website carries a report on an article on the website of Britain’s Jane’s Defense Review published on September 9 on China’s new weapons systemss titled “China showcases new weapon systems at 3 September parade”
Jane’s describes almost all the new weapons showcased for the first time in the military parade, but huanqiu.com only carries the following translation of Jane’s descriptions of seven of those weapons, which perhaps it regards as the most important ones among the weapons described in Jane’s article.
1. DF-21D anti-ship ballistic missile
While its development likely dates to the early 1990s, according to the Pentagon, the China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation’s (CASIC’s) Dong Feng DF-21D started deployment in 2014. It is the world’s first deployed anti-ship ballistic missile (ASBM), using a manoeuvrable warhead likely with multiple sensors to enable attacks against moving ships at sea. It is expected that the PLA wills seek to co-ordinate DF-21D strikes with air- and submarine-launched anti-ship missiles to overwhelm target defences.
2. DF-16 medium-range ballistic missile
Likely deployed to Second Artillery Corp units starting in early 2011, the CASIC DF-16 800 to 1,000 km medium-range ballistic missile made its first parade appearance. It uses the warhead stage of the DF-11A short-range ballistic missile with a larger-boost engine to achieve longer range and higher speeds to evade new US missile defences acquired by Taiwan. This missile may also be able to attack Japanese and US forces on Okinawa. The DF-16 also employs laser countermeasures on its TEL cabin roof.
3. DF-26 intermediate/long-range ballistic missile
The China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) 3,000 to 4,000 km-range DF-26 intermediate range ballistic missile also made its first parade appearance. Its announced anti-ship capability has been covered by Jane’s Defense Review.
4. DF-5B ICBM
Making its first parade appearance, Asian military sources have mentioned the multiple-warhead-armed CASC DF-5B 15,000-km-range, liquid-fuelled ICBM since 2008. However, the Pentagon did not acknowledge this silo-launched ICBM until the publication of its 2015 annual China report. Its appearance in the parade revealed the DF-5B uses the same missile shroud technology as CASC’s Long March-2C space launch vehicle. While reported to carry only three warheads, it appears that the DF-5B is large enough to carry many more.
5. T-99A main battle tank
The third generation of Norinco’s T-99 main battle tank family revealed in 1999, the T-99A, was first revealed by Chinese sources in early 2011. Also called the T-99A2, it was featured prominently in the September 2014 Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) ‘Peace Mission’ exercises. Its distinctive feature is a sharp, wedge-shaped turret that makes extensive use of second-generation composite and reactive armor plus the use of a second-generation laser countermeasures system. Weighing about 50 tons, it is armed with a 125 mm, auto-stabilised, auto-loading main gun that Chinese media revealed may be capable of firing 8 rounds a minute and is armed with gun-launched anti-tank missiles. Featuring new digital communications, one of the tank’s designers has stated that the T-99A has not reached desired reliability levels (huanqiu.com’s report omitted the underlined passage)
6. AFT-10 anti-tank missile (Hongjian-10)
Also making its first official appearance was the ATF-10 fiber-optic-guided, non-line-of-sight (NLOS) anti-tank missile. Eight are carried by a modified ZBD-04A APC. The PLA’s interest in NLOS anti-tank missiles became apparent in 2011, and the ATF-10 featured prominently in the 2014 ‘Peace Mission’ exercises. The missile reportedly has a range of about 10 km.
7. YJ-12 anti-ship missile
Also making its first parade appearance was the Hongdu Aviation Industries Corporation’s YJ-12 ramjet-powered, supersonic air-launched anti-ship missile. It is a development of the ramjet-powered YJ-91, influenced by the Russian Zvezda Kh-31 purchased by the PLA. The speed of the YJ-12 is estimated at between Mach 2.5 and Mach 4, with a range of up to 400 km. Two are carried by XAC H-6G bombers in PLA Naval Air Force (PLANAF) service. Up to six can be carried by the new H-6K bomber, and a regiment of these could launch more than 100 for saturation attacks.
It is no secret that China has made large investment in attack weapon systems for several years—Pentagon has said in quite a few reports that China has developed a series of ballistic and cruise missiles that have made it much complicated for US to take measures to deal with once there is a crisis near the Diaoyu Islands (known as Senkaku in Japan).
Source: huanqiu.com “Jane’s counts China’s new weapons shown in September 3 military parade: Missiles that deal with U.S. interference over the Diaoyus” (summary by Chan Kai Yee based on the report in Chinese)
Full text of Jane’s report can be viewed at http://www.janes.com/article/54029/china-showcases-new-weapon-systems-at-3-september-parade
Qianzhan.com quotes foreign media’s reports as saying that China’s newest 052D Aegis destroyer is equipped with China’s newest YJ-18 supersonic anti-ship missiles.
The missile’s high speed and terminal movement make it very difficult to intercept.
At present, there is only one 052D destroyer in China with vertical launch system (VLS) to launch such missiles, but China is now building such destroyers on a large scale in order to have 10 of them in service by 2017.
Moreover, China’s Types 093G and 095 attack nuclear submarines will also be armed with such missiles. Recent photo of China’s three new 093Gs shows that they all have VLS.
In the past, China relied on Russia for anti-ship missiles but now China is able to develop and make advanced anti-ship missiles to arm its navy on its own.
According to the report, YJ-12 air-to-surface and YJ-18 constitute meaningful threat to US navy.
Source: qianzhan.com “Bare the mystery of PLA’s newest anti-ship missiles: Causing panic in the US and Japan as one of them is enough to destroy an Aegis destroyer” (summary by Chan Kai Yee based on the report in Chinese)